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    Prefrontal Cortex

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    Prefrontal Cortex The prefrontal cortex is the most anterior portion of the frontal lobe. It responds mostly to stimuli signaling the need for movement, however it is also responsible for many other specialized functions. It receives information from all sensory systems and can integrate a large amount of information (Kalat 2004). Studies have shown that the prefrontal cortex is responsible for working memory. Working memory is defined as "the information that is currently available

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    The Temporal Cortex

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    The Temporal Cortex The temporal cortex, also known as the temporal lobes, is the part of the verbal cortex in the left and right hemispheres of the brain lying inside the temples. In general the temporal lobes handle a wide variety of task that are essential to every day functioning. Patient him/herself The temporal lobes are readily recognizable brain structures with a thumb like appearance when viewed from the side. Their name reflects their location beneath the temporal bone

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    Lesions of the Prefrontal Cortex

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    Lesions of the Prefrontal Cortex The prefrontal cortex is involved in a wide variety of functions. It is known as the area of the brain which has “executive control”, taking input from other areas of the brain and combining and applying those functions (Kalat 2004). Lesions to the prefrontal area can greatly impair overt behavior of an inflicted individual. These deficits are dependent upon the severity of the lesion and the specific region of the prefrontal cortex in which the lesion resides

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    Introduction The orbitofrontal cortex is found to be associated with the processing of cognitive information related to decision making. This is, responding to the reward or punishment outcomes experienced by an individual after making a decision and, responding to the expectation of facing such an outcome later. This region of the brain is involved in the regulation of emotions during the process of decision making thereby causing an individual to engage in certain social behaviours. This essay

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    Prefrontal Cortex Lesions from Neurosurgeon and Patient Perspective In this paper, I will discuss lesions of the prefrontal cortex from the perspective of the practice of neurosurgery (in particular, the sub-field of psychosurgery) and then I will consider some studies that look at the implications of lesions to the prefrontal cortex to the brain and behavior, from the perspective of the patient with the lesion. Initially, I will start with the history and explanation of psychosurgery.

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    The Prefrontal Cortex and Decision-Making

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    at the most basic level of self-regulation” (p. 266). Through my chosen articles I found that the Prefrontal Cortex is the major portion of the brain that is responsible for decision-making. To understand the decision-making process better the prefrontal Cortex can be divided into three regions: the Orbitofrontal Cortex, the Anterior Cingulate Cortex, and the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex. Each of these areas contributes to different decision-making sub-processes, which in turn make up the distinctive

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    rest of the body. He hypothesized that there were areas in cerebral cortex that controlled isolated movements and that the areas that were adjacent in the brain were anatomically adjacent as well. Therefore, a seizure began in one area and spread to the rest of the cortex. His hypothesis was later substantiated by Fritsch and Hittig's excitation experiments on motor cortex or area 4. It is a band of neural tissue on the cerebral cortex lying on precentral fissure. The body's movements are mapped out

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    The Neurosurgeon

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    below the Sylvian fissure and anterior to the occipital and parietal cortex. The temporal regions can be divided on the lateral surface into those that are auditory (Brodmann’s area) and those that form the ventral visual stream on the lateral temporal lobe. The visual regions are referred to as either inferotemporal cortex or by von Bonin and Bailey’s designation, TE. The sulci of the temporal lobe contains most of the cortex. The superior temporal sulcus (STS) which separates the superior

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    cerebral cortex, is not able to rest but rather remains semi-alert in a state of "quiet readiness" (2). Certain stages of sleep are needed for the regeneration of neurons within the cerebral cortex while other stages of sleep seem to be used for forming new memories and generating new synaptic connections. The effects of sleep deprivation on behavior have been tested with relation to the presence of activity in different sections of the cerebral cortex. The temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex is associated

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    the body, context perceptions, and holistic perception. The orbito-frontal cortex (the part of the brain directly behind the eyes) is responsible for integrating emotional responses generated in the limbic system with higher cognitive functions, such as planning and language, in the cerebral cortex's prefrontal lobes(Culp). The left orbito-frontal cortex is responsible for memory creation while the right orbito-frontal cortex is responsible for memory retrieval. Healthy functioning requires an integrated

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