Notions of Selflessness in Sartrean Existentialism and Theravadin Buddhism ABSTRACT: In this essay I examine the relationship between Sartre's phenomenological description of the "self" as expressed in his early work (especially Being and Nothingness) and elements to be found in some approaches to Buddhism. The vast enormity of this task will be obvious to anyone who is aware of the numerous schools and traditions through which the religion of Buddhism has manifested itself. In order to be brief, I have decided to select specific aspects of what is commonly called the Theravadin tradition as being representative of Buddhist philosophy. By choosing to look primarily at the Theravadin tradition, I am by necessity ignoring a vast number of other Buddhist approaches. However, in my view, the Theravadin sect presents a consistent Buddhist philosophy which is representative of many of the major trends within Buddhism.
Comparative Analysis: Buddhism In India And China Buddhism is the non-theistic religion and philosophical system founded in North-East India in the sixth century by Gautama Siddharta (the Buddha). His followers seek to emulate his example of perfect morality, wisdom and compassion culminating in a transformation of consciousness known as enlightenment. Buddhism teaches that greed, hatred and delusion separate the individual from the true perception of the nature of things, causing him to remain tied to the bhavachakra (Ch’en, 1989). The apparent substantiality of all objects including the self is an illusion; everything mundane is temporary and ultimately unsatisfying. The central beliefs of Buddhism are based on Buddha’s Four Noble Truths the last of which is the Eightfold Noble Path, by which enlightenment may be attained and the individual self annihilated in Nirvana.
Zen or Japanese Buddhism is one of the quintessential eastern spiritually intertwined religions that changed the perspective on reality and ultimately life. One of the main historical thinkers responsible for the manifestation of Zen is Dogen Zenju. He established the importance of meditation, as the principle vehicle for mindfulness. Furthermore, Dogen established that, “the Buddhist practice is simply the meditational practice of realizing enlightenment”, or also referred to as zazen (Koller, 278). This practice provides an individual with the knowhow to release all aversion in the world, which leads to suffering.
“The Epistemology of Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism.” Philosophy 28 (1953): 260-264. Zuercher, Erik. “Buddhism in China.” In The Encyclopedia of Religion, edited by Mircea Eliade, vol. 2, 414-21. New York: MacMillan, 1987.
Sankara, Ramanuja, and Madhva were great intellectuals that interpreted the Upanishads, the philosophy of Hinduism, and taught their own interpretations. Buddhism started with Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha, and later, Nagarjuna, a follower of Buddhism, offered his philosophy. (Oxtoby) Together, their teachings have been trying to answer the main philosophical questions as a basis for human faith. In Hinduism, Sankara taught a form of thought called the Vedanta philosophy. Sankara's main position is that the soul of humans, atman, and the Ultimate Reality, Supreme Being, or God, Brahman, is non-dualistic.
Buddhism is a unique religion that bestows upon its members that their actions accumulate karma and too much bad karma leads to rebirth. A person reaches Nirvana (also known as heaven) when achieving enlightenment and is no longer subjected to rebirth. Buddhism also believes there is no one almighty god, but rather many gods, which they refer to as deities. Dharma is commonly known as the sacred teachings of a deity. The Buddha is only born in certain situations that members are in need of re-teaching the Dharma.
My knowledge of the Heart Sutra comes from the commentary of the Dali Lama (3-52, 63-147) and the rest comes from commentary from Jamyang Gawai Lodro (151-164). Both of these commentaries are in a volume entitled Essence of the Heart Sutra translated by Geshe Thuptn Jipa. This is also where I read the words of the Sutra itself (59-61). My own personal commentary shall emphasize the ultimate truth about emptiness is realizing all is empty, even the knowledge and practices that allow us to realize it. In this way, Buddhism turns in on itself, negating the existence of its own essence.
Discoveries in western Tibet and the western Himalayas essays on history, literature, archaeology and art : PIATS 2003, Tibetan studies, proceedings of the Tenth Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies, Oxford, 2003. Leiden: Brill. Stratton, E. (2002). The evolution of Indian stupa architecture in east Asia. New Delhi: Vedams.
Eastern enlightenment religions have been gaining popularity throughout the western world for the past few decades, with many people attracted to a "different" way of experiencing religion. As with many other enlightenment religions, Buddhism requires disciples to understand concepts that are not readily explainable: one such concept is that of no-self. In this essay I shall discuss the no-self from a number of modern perspectives; however, as no-self is difficult to describe I shall focus on both the self and no-self. Beginning with psychological aspects, and neurophysiological research on transcendental meditation, I shall discuss the impact of modern brain science on our understanding of the self and transcendence. Next I will outline the relationship between quantum physics and non-locality, as this gives a western scientific explanation for no-self.
Jung'S Theory of Archetypes: A Critique. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 36(2), 61-91. doi:10.1177/00221678960362008 Sprengnether, M. (2003). Mouth To Mouth: Freud, Irma, And The Dream Of Psychoanalysis. American Imago, 60(3), 259-284. doi:10.1353/aim.2003.0020 Webb, W. B., & Cartwright, R. D. (1978). Sleep and Dreams.