Historiography is the writing of history based on the analyzing of primary, secondary, orals sources and materials. The account becomes a literary narrative that must stand the test of critical examination methods and peer reviews. This research is to discover how historians interpret the accounts of Caribbean enslavement and the methods use in studying the significance of European contact with the Caribbean people during colonial times. The objective is to examine the diverse views and representations of the original documents on slave uprisings, diaries, letters, maps, court records of slave rebellion, and town records of the transactions of slaves during the 1700, and 1800 hundreds. Upon studying these reports and documents it is evident
What is the Caribbean? Many ask themselves, What is the Caribbean? What makes up the Caribbean? and How has each island created their identity due to their history? Sidney Mintz in the article, "The Caribbean as a Social-cultural Area" approaches a more social interpretation, Antonio Benítez-Rojo in the article "From the plantation to the Plantation" approaches a more humanistic interpretation while Michelle Cliff in her novel Abeng and her article "If I could write this in fire" takes on a more personal view.
Exploration by the authors is taken from two different views, one by Mintz and Rojo where they are looking on the culture from outside and the other by Cliff who depicts the situation from inside. Sidney Mintz is social scientist that attempts to classify the Caribbean into its own typology in order to describe its socio-cultural structure, Antonio Benitz-Rojo is a Cuban literary critic that describes the Caribbean in terms of the chaos theory, and Michelle Cliff is a Jamaican that use the experiences of her life on the island to describe the status of the Caribbean existence. Mintz and Rojo use the historical facts that led to the formation of what today is the Caribbean region and paint an overall picture of it that is very general and lacking personal experiences. Never is there the insertion of the experience of what it is like to live in the Caribbean. The two authors assume a great deal about the socio-cultural structure that exist based on the historical facts, facts that are clouded by the censorship of the imperialistic nations.
Colonialism in the Caribbean Although Michelle Cliff, Antonio Benitez- Rojo, and Sidney Mintz all discuss the Caribbean in their writings they all have very distinct perspectives. In his writing, The Caribbean as a Socio-cultural Area, Sidney Mintz discusses the Caribbean from a historical standpoint in which he characterizes it as a socially united, rather than a culturally united one. Antonio Benitez- Rojo tries to explain the distinct cultures of the Caribbean with a combination of historical and personal knowledge , in his writing of The Repeating Island. While in her novel Abeng, Michelle Cliff uses an entirely different means of discussing the Caribbean because she does it through the eyes of a child. Despite having different outlooks in explaining the Caribbean they all record the theme of colonialism and their effects on people and society.
Benitez-Rojo uses the idea of “rhythms” to describe the connection and ideas of community that, to him, make up the idea of “the Caribbean.” The final author is not a historian or literary critic like the previous two, but she does offer perhaps the most revealing look at what life is like on a Caribbean island out of the three. Michelle Cliff is a writer from Jamaica and in her two works, Abeng and “If I Could Write This in Fire, I Would Write This in Fire,” she explores the de... ... middle of paper ... ...lf. (Abeng p.158) On the other hand, the black residents of the island feel that any presence of “whiteness” is a negative aspect as well. Clare’s friend Zoe asks her mother why Clare wouldn’t let her try on her new bathing suit, and Zoe’s mother responds, “de buckra people, dem is fe dem alone,” meaning that white people (although Clare is only partly white) can only fraternize with other white people.
This research is important to the Caribbean because in order to gain a fuller understanding of the sociolinguistic situation of the Caribbean, the attitudes toward creole of propertied descendants of early European settlers who were born and raised in Martinique and St. Croix, must be analysed. In order to determine that the research paper is trustworthy; techniques and methods used must be critically analysed, using the research process as a guide. Many political changes have been happening in St. Croix throughout their history. Switching hands from Spain, Holland, England, France, The Knights of Malta, Denmark and the United States, this country has a rich cultural heritage where it contrasts with Martinique who was mainly colonised by the French and only received the English colonisation for a few years. The attitudes being investigated in both countries are analysed using Baker’s theoretical framework which identifies three major components for conceptualising attitudes.
How are race and ethnicity represented in Tar Bay and White teeth? Are race and/or ethnicity challenged in these narratives, and if so, how? Toni Morrison an American writer specifically about the different aspects of the past with commenting on her explanation of this ‘untenable reality’ of slavery and the African American voices that developed out of it. She writes about the particular grasp of history and memory, her representation of the psychological ramifications of slavery, her depiction of race/ethnicity relations in America. In particular in Toni Morrison’s novel Tar Baby the notion of race and ethnicity is explored through the blackness which presents to the readers that as a nation we are all implicated in the construction of blackness and to present and show ways that the black art can promote and transform the constructions.
The history of human civilisation is characterised by different stages of human moral and ethical development. In other words, what can be viewed as moral and socially-acceptable in nineteenth century is far from being so nowadays. The issue of slavery and the slave trade is one of the most horrific lessons of history none should ever forget. In order to make sure that contemporary generation understands the horror of the slave trade, it I need to be studied in the diversity of its discourses. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how the novel “Oroonoko” by Aphra Behn creates an accurate picture of the triangular slave trade in Europe, Africa and the Caribbean in the seventeenth century.
Erzulie’s Skirt helps to explore modes of resistance to oppression, how religion plays a part in resistance and identity preservation, and how past and present journeys are connected. The loss and renewal of faith, the physical abuse and the mental oppression experienced by Miriam and Micaela directly imitate the same injustices felt by those who suffered across the Middle Passage, providing evidence for the idea that the brothel is a metaphor for a slave ship and supporting that the purpose of literature is to maintain the interconnectedness of lives despite the distance of time and space.
It is within this context of understanding the current social and racial strife in Jamaica that Michelle Cliff presents the intimate relationship between past and present. Michelle Cliff, in an ontological manner attempts to unmask the current phenomena of racial strife in Jamaica by considering and examining the disdainful legacies of slavery brought upon by ruthless European colonialism in the Americas. Cliff, like many of the historians, sociologists, and economists which we have encountered in our study of Caribbean history, is partaking in an unmasking process of the Jamaican society in her literature in order to reconcile a ravaged Jamaican and Caribbean identity. Ultimately, Michelle Cliff’s desire to make sense of the Caribbean’s intricate social and cultural mosaic prompted her to "look back," and, as she states in her essay: To try and locate the vanishing point: where the lines of perspective converge and disappear. Lines of color and class.