Containment includes standard microbiological practices, safety equipments, facility safeguards and design. Thus containment is the basic objective for biosafety levels.  Risk assessment gives us information to recongnize the interventions that leads to the improvement of health and safety to the workers, public and to the environment. Risk assessment also can be used to identify data gaps and objective research that should have the greatest value in terms of public health impact.  Risk assessment provides wide information to develop a standard microbiological and clinical laboratory.
Two test tubes were placed in a test tube holder and 14ML of each sample of vinegar poured into one of the test tubes. About two drops of Universal Indicator were placed in the test tubes and the reaction colourers were recorded for later use.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), describes antibiotic resistance is the ability of bacteria or other microbes to resist the effects of antibiotic treatment. () So instead of being destroyed by the medications, the bacteria survives and continues to reproduce, resultant in new communicable diseases that even more difficult to treat. Because of this issue the CDC has instituted a campaign entitles, "Campaign to Prevent Antimicrobial Resistance." The campaign focuses on four integrated strategies: preventing infection, diagnosing and treating infection effectively, using antimicrobials wisely, and preventing transmission. () This campaign consists of 12 steps that teach nurses as well as other healthcare providers about antimicrobial resistance and presents plans to advance nursing practice, as well as antimicrobial use.
After mixing, we tested the absorbance for each solution using a spectrophotometer. Mixing the Diffusion and Exposure Solution For the lab experiment of mixing the diffusion and exposure solution, we are going to test if the pigment is released in the exposure solution. We used materials as follows: Obtaining a beet, we punched out 2 cm long beets using a cork borer. Then we wash the beets in running water, after that we prepared 10 test tubes each containing different pH solution.
Thus, it is crucial to test bacteria for antibiotic resistance to utilize antibiotics that battle with bacteria properly. The Kirby-Bauer experiment supplements the knowledge of sensitivity and selection of antibiotics to combat infectious bacteria using appropriate antibiotics. It helps to determine which antibiotic is resistant or susceptible to certain bacteria (Barry et al., 1979). Twelve different types of antibiotics were dispensed on a large Mueller-Hinton agar plate containing Enterobacteriaceae. These antibiotics include AmC-30, AZM-15, CF-30, CIP-5, GM-10, P-10, PIP-100, PB-300, RA-5, SD-0.25, Te-30, and Va-30.
This is particularly true for agents used to treat bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and viral infections; treated by antibiotics. Mechanisms that can be responsible for this phenomenon range from being biological to physiological. Many agencies have recognized this problem and have been taking steps to resolve it. To understand how antibiotics are successful or not, it is required to understand its history, and also the functions of bacteria in the human body. Also, it is important to know what a bacteria is and how it affects the human body.
Biosafety and biosecurity are related terms but are different in terms of operational definition. Biosafety programs aims to eliminate or at least exposure of individuals and the community to potentially harmful biological agents. Biosafety on the other hand is attained by implementing varying levels of laboratory control and containment using laboratory design and access restrictions, personnel competency-building and training, use of containment equipment, and safe methods of managing infectious materials in a laboratory environment. The common understanding of biosafety originated from the practical guidance issued by the World Health Organization (WHO) on techniques for use in laboratories. WHO considers biosafety as "the containment
Multidrug resistant strains such as Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Plasmodium pose unique problems in the health field and caregivers must treat the infected patients without effective antimicrobials. Through intensive research, studies have shown that cells are able to genetically acquire resistance in two ways: through mutations of chromosomal genes and by acquiring resistance genes or chromosomal pieces of DNA called plasmids in a process called horizontal gene transfer. Literature reports, “Bacteria can carry genes that allow them to survive exposure to the antibiotic we currently have. This means that infections caused by these bacteria are harder to treat, although they are not more severe or infectious. What is concerning is that the gene that carries they antibiotic resistance can be passed between bacteria, allowing for the creation of bacteria that carry resistance to many antibiotics, a superbug”.
The MR test media contains peptone, glucose, and a phosphate buffer (Stout et al, 45). To perform the MR test, I used the stabbing technique to inoculate the MR media. I sterilized the stabbing utensil under an open flame, obtained a small amount of unknown bacteria, and stabbed the MR media. Once the MR media was inoculated, I let it incubate for 24 hours in the 37°C hot room. After the 24-hour incubation, I added 15 drops of Methyl Red to the MR media to test for mixed acid production.