Some nights I lay awake thinking about the future—thinking about the cities that haven’t been built, the planets that haven’t been found, and the people that I will never get to meet. I am scared for those people.
Penicillin-The discovery that changed the world, but for how long?
Accidents can often turn positive, or in some cases, they can even become revolutionary. The discovery of Penicillin changed the world immensely and it was all due to an accident one day in the lab. Penicillin changed the history of medicine for the better, saving millions of lives since its discovery. Even today, it is used by millions daily, from prescriptions from the pharmacy to life saving drugs in the hospital.
Resistance arises from mutations that are not under the control of humans, but the evolution of bacteria has been sped along by the overexposure of antibiotics to both people and animals. The number of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria in an area is closely related to the frequency that antibiotics that are prescribed (Todar, 2012). Patients often unnecessarily demand antibiotics to treat common colds or simple illnesses that are not caused by bacteria. Instead, these infections are caused by viruses which, unlike bacteria, are unaffected by antibiotics. Incorrect diagnosis can also lead patients to using unnecessary antibiotics, which can sometimes be even more dangerous than otherwise left untreated. Besides the fact that antibiotics kill off beneficial bacteria in the intestines, misuse of antibiotics provides an opportunity ...
Antibiotics are and have always been some of the key contributing factors in the medicinal industry. By preserving public health and curing diseases by killing bacteria, antibiotics are critical to society’s health. However, the amount of antibiotic resistant bacteria is rapidly rising, and the rate of antibiotic discovery can never hope to keep up with the growth of these super bacteria. Fortunately, there are many methods to discover new antibiotics that have the potential to deal with antibiotic resistant bacteria.
Around every corner in this life lurks some kind of danger. Some are hidden and some are exposed. Others are threatening to our safety, while some threaten our livelihood. The average person in today’s world is vulnerable to many threats, but humanity has come to be a resilient species. We are not indestructible however, with the death toll at a staggering amount each day for various reasons, especially in terms of health. Out of the many illnesses that have claimed many lives over the years, like cancer and heart disease, the focus will be on a much more daunting subject.
When penicillin was first administered in 1943, it proved to be extraordinary at wiping out nasty cases of syphilis, tuberculosis, gonorrhea, and meningitis infection. With the threat of these deadly infections in ‘check,’ pharmaceutical industries then cut back on their research to discover even more effective antibiotics. This new-found medical confidence inspired patients to merrily run to the clinic to get penicillin prescriptions for everything from nausea and diarrhea to running nose and sneezing, and doctors to happily prescribe the ‘miracle drug.’
. Many doctors and patients are unaware that antibiotics are designed to treat bacterial infections, not viral infections (Antibiotic resistance, N.D.). Many bacteria within our bodies are not harmful at all, and some of them actually provide health benefits. The bacteria that are harmful are disease-causing bacteria, which generate sicknesses such as strep throat, the common cold, and ear infections (Get, 2013). Viruses are smaller than bacteria and require hosts, such as plants or animals, in order to proliferate (What, N.D.). Doctors play a vital role in administering antibiotics, for patients rely on their knowledge and expertise in order to receive proper medication for ailments throughout their lives. According to www.acponline.org, 190 million doses of antibiotics are administered every day. Among patients that do not reside in hospitals, doctors prescribe more than 133 million antibiotic programs every year. Of those 133 million programs, it is estimated that over 50 percent of them are unnecessarily prescribed because the doctor is prescribing them for viral infections such as common colds or simple coughs (Antibiotic resistance, N.D.). However, doctors are not the only ones to blame in regard to misuse of antibiotics because their patients are just as guilty when it comes to ignorance in respect to antibiotic usage. Many preventable factors have emerged because of irresponsibility of patients, including self-medication practices and the temptations of cheap, counterfeit drugs, all of which have aggravated drug resistance in the last 20 years (What, N.D.). Also, many patients are unaware of the dangers that can result from leaving medication behind because they don’t use it. It is extremely ill-advised to leave behind eve...
Antibiotics are a prescription animal medicine distributed by veterinarians for the treatment of bacterial infections in animals. They are widely used and are very effective in this purpose. Unfortunately, there are times when animals are injected and the drug is still present in the body when it is sent to slaughter. These antibiotic residues present in the meat then enter the human food chain and can pose a risk to human health. Extensive tests for carcinogencitiy and toxicity are conducted on each antibiotic that is used in animal health to determine the antibiotic tolerance level (Wilson, Otsuki and Majumdsar, 2003).
“Antibiotics must be used judiciously in humans and animals because both uses contribute to the emergence, persistence, and spread of resistant bacteria. Resistant bacteria in food-producing animals are of particular concern. Food animals serve as a reservoir of resistant pathogens and resistance mechanisms that can directly or indirectly result in antibiotic-resistant infections in humans. For example, resistant bacteria may be transmitted to humans through the foods we eat.” A number of bacteria the comes from the food we eat is all from the antibiotics.
An estimated 70 percent of the antibiotics used in the U.S. are given to farm animals for non-therapeutic purposes. Using these antibiotics in this way can lead to drug-resistant bacteria; as a result, certain bacterial infections have already become untreatable in humans. Antibiotic resistant infections kill 90,000 Americans every year and 76 million people become ill from food poisoning (Mason,2014).