This resulted in the creation of a national anthem, and the establishment of a national flag. In the past, Islamic law was predominant, but was replaced by secular law, so no individual groups were left out. The Tanzimat’s main focus was to replace it’s old, outdated ways, with more of a westernized approach. The reforms varied greatly, but for the most part, they were all made to help modernize the empire. During the Tanzimat, two royal decrees were issued that displayed exactly what the reform movement was all about.
That history is well summarized by Hakan M. Yavuz, in his recent article ?The case of Turkey (on secularism & religion)? : ?The history of the contestation between religion and secularism is the story of the struggle between a state-imposed modernization run by a circumscribed Kemalist political elite and a popular resistance that has often assumed a religious cast.? The Kemalists outlawed Islamic identity claims, as well as Kurdish ethnic claims.? Instead of being viewed as a strength, the Ottoman-Islamic tradition of pluralism, tolerance, and cultural diversity was viewed as a debilitating weakness.
It immediatly started on a course of modernization in all walks of life. Turkey would base its political and legal sytems on the modern secular models as well as strengthening its political relations with the West to reach its goals as a new republic. The goals as expressed by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the leader of the nationalist movement and first president of the Turkish Republic, were "to reach the level of contemporary civilization". To achieve these goals, a doctirne for foreign relations was created; as Atarurk said, "Peace at home, Peace in the world." This has not been and easy task, the history and geographical location of Turkey.
Applied to politics, modernity mean the pursuit of power driven by the natural desire to acquire and expand, have to achieve that by any means possible. The new politics that Machiavelli would introduce required western civilization to accept the view that politics at its best ought to be both tyrannical and republican (Parel). There can be no political freedom without the active agency of both force and fear which is also something found in Hobbes.
According to Arendt, “only where change occurs in the sense of a new beginning, where violence is used to constitute an altogether different form of government, to bring about the formation of a new body politic, where the liberation from oppression aims at least at the constitution of freedom can we speak of revolution” (25). Meaning that only events that fulfill those stipulations can be considered revolutionary. Arendt also states, quoting Condorcet, “‘the world ‘revolutionary’ can be applied only to revolutions whose aim is freedom’” (19). An event where mere changes are made cannot be considered revolutionary. Neither can a restoration, which Arendt makes sure to clarify.
In history, ideas are mixed and merged with one another to develop conceptual byproducts which in the case of Asad is modernity’s secularism. Weberian theory of religion like Asad’s genelalogical method maintains that the constant flow of ideas create social change that alter power relations that ultimately determine how subjects will create and spread new ideas— historically leading to unintended consequences.
Theoreticians such as Karl Marx, Sigmund Freud, Max Weber, and Émile Durkheim, postulated that the modernization of society would see a decline in levels of religiosity. The study of the process seeks to determine the manner in which, or extent to which religious doctrines, practices and institutions are losing their social significance. Both rely on the concept of a secular state: one that separates governmental and religious institutions, and bases its authority on man-made law, not in religious-doctrine. The ‘Secularization of Religion Debate’ is a conversation ... ... middle of paper ... ...e life and times of secularization theory will be turned over to historians, who might just see it as yet another example of the glaring flaw of the social sciences. Furthermore, the secularization theory emerged at roughly the same time as the field of sociology, which was, at root, preoccupied with the meaning of modernization and fashion the theory of modernization.
Before WW1, the Middle East was dominated by outside powers. Egypt was under British control and Persia was divided in to Russian and British spheres of influence. The Ottomans tried to promote change with the Tanzimat reforms which allowed some industrialization and modernization. However, in 1908, the Young Turks took over and attempted faster change. Unfortunately, the Young Turks sided with the Germans in WW1, so the Middle East was directly involved in the war.
Firstly, I will investigate, the impact of modernity on religion from the sociologists and modernisation theorists’ perspective. Secondly, as modernity has developed, scientific discovery has begun to question traditional religious views and hence has influenced the social importance of religion through this development. Finally, the sociological argument for why religion is expected to continue to decline in modern society. All of which will focus on modernity in western society. Sociologists like Bryan Turner (1991) argued and projected that modernity was not just about industrialisation, democratisation, or urbanization, but was also about secularisation of the world (Turner, 1991).
Introduction My thesis, in brief, is that the painful "God is dead" period of history we are presently going through can best be understood as a necessary "transitional period"— the immediate consequence of mankind’s intellectual advance, in the preceding period, viz., the Modern or Age of Reason, beyond the Middle Ages, the Age of Belief. With the apotheosis of the development of the principle of subjectivity in Modern philosophy, i.e., with the attainmeUnprioritized— SDO meetingnt of "absolute knowing," or Reason’s "knowing of the absolute," humanity had outgrown its former manner of relating to substance, the divine: — its eyes opened, it could not go backwards but only forward. From the highest standpoint, it can be said that the movement of history is from the God "outside" to the God "inside"— an inversion process involving three distinct and necessary phases: Premodernity, Modernity, and Postmodernity, to be correlated with Thomas Aquinas, Hegel, and Nietzsche, respectively. It appears that as a result of Modernity’s, i.e. Hegel’s, intellectual achievement— in which religion was superseded by philosophy, i.e., Wissenschaft or Science— religion had of necessity to undergo a major crisis.