Transnational Social Movements, International Nongovernmental Organizations and Our State-centric World The 1999 Seattle protests brought the apparent proliferation of anti-globalization grassroot sociopolitical movements into the limelight of the world stage. Transnational social movements (TSMs), international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs), as well as the loose transnational activist networks (TANs) that contain them—all these came to be seen as an angry and no less potent backlash that's directed at the powerful states and increasingly towering economic IGOs such as the WTO, the IMF, and the World Bank. In the field of international relations, some regard this as a prophetic watershed event that signals the weakening and perhaps even collapsing of the state-centric system of international relations, while many others insist that Seattle is but an eventually insignificant episode in the book of globalization and state power, as evidenced by the Doha success. This paper attempts to address two questions that are at the heart of this dispute: Do TSMs and INGOs have any real power in today's international political arena against the traditional view of state dominance? And, if the answer to the previous question is yes, then does such a change merit a fundamental revision of the state-centric model of international relations? My answer to these two questions is threefold: First, I assert that TSMs and INGOs can and have posed substantial normative challenges to state hegemony, most commonly the notion that the state enjoys a monopoly on representation of its citizens and their interests. Furthermore, TSMs and INGOs that employ the use of violence (particularly terrorism) breach the conventional notion that states... ... middle of paper ... ...ed Arjomand, Said Amir. “Iran's Islamic Revolution in Comparative Perspective.” World Politics, Volume 38, Issue 3 (1986. 4), 383-414. Griffith, William E. “The Revial of Islamic Fundamentalism: the Case of Iran.” International Security. Volume 4, Issue 1, 1979, 132-138. Khashan, Hilal. “The New World Order and the Tempo of Militant Islam.” British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies. Volume 24, Issue 1 (1997. 5), 5-24. O'Brien, Robert, et al. Contesting Glboal Governance. Cambridge, 2000. G. Hossein. “Legitimacy, Religion, and Nationalism in the Middle East.” The American Political Science Review, Volume 84, Issue 1 (1990. 3), 69-91. Tarrow, Sidney. “Transnational Politics: Contention and Institutions in International Politics.” Annual Review of Political Science, 2001.4. Weaver, Mary Ann. “The Real Bin Laden.” The New Yorker, January 24, 2000.
The Tragedy of Macbeth is a fictional play written by English poet William Shakespeare. The play is set in eleventh century Scotland, during the reign of King James the first. Shakespeare evidently writes in this time period to describe the link between leaders and their supreme or ultimate power. The play was first performed in the year 1606, at the world famous Globe Theatre, and is considered one of the most profound and compelling tragedies ever told. The Tragedy of Macbeth tells the tale of a brave Scottish general named Macbeth and his ambitious desire to become king of Scotland. While he and another commander named Banquo return home from war they stumble into three hagged looking witches. The witches offer the men an enticing prophecy that leads to a more pivotal role found later in the play. Throughout the play Macbeth is seen confronting his own moral ambiguity to the heinous acts he must perform to get the position he most desires. “My thought, whose murder yet is but fantastical, [s]hakes so my single state of man” (Shakespeare 1.3.152-53). This uncertainty, present in the scenes of Duncan’s murder, the feast, and the witch’s final predictions each unfold the ambiguity needed to understand the basis of the work as a whole.
More than two dozen studies have already reported violence occurring to social workers in their work place. National rates shows 65% to 86% of social workers have faced violence by clients during their career, and 47% of social workers have concerns for their safety. Every type of violence except direct physical assault is included in this study. Violence was labeled as intentional property damage, threats, verbal abuse, and physical harm whether attempted or actual. In addition threats of lawsuits against social workers by clients past or present is included as they can cause immense stress. The hypotheses used a work stress theory of the effects of client violence toward social workers and the relationship between experiencing violence, fear of futu...
To begin with, Macbeth is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare that believed to have taken place around 1606. This play dramatizes the physical, emotional, and psychological effects of those who seek power for ones’ sake. In this play a Scottish General named Macbeth receives predictions from three witches that voice him he will one day become the King of Scotland. With determination his wife takes action convincing him to murder King Duncan therefore he would become king. Macbeth then becomes paranoid and filled with guilt, forcing him to commit more murders to protect himself from suspicion. Macbeth and Lady Macbeth then receive the madness of death.
Macbeth is a play about tragedy. It tells the tale of one man’s evil rise to becoming king and his tragic downfall that led to his death. Nevertheless, it is also a play about the political history surrounding that king. Shakespeare took the story of Macbeth from Raphael Holinshed’s Scottish Chronicle in 1570 and even more from the second edition, Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland in 1587. From these books he was able to take bits and pieces of history, combine events, omit others, create his own tale of King Macbeth and make it appealing to the King and people of his time.
These after school programs are very important for the future of thousands of elementary aged kids. For those less fortunate kids that do not have supportive parents or appropriate supervision at home, after school programs give those children a chance to receive constructive attention from a mentor. Because I feel these programs are so beneficial, I am very interested in the further spread of after school programs among public schools nationwide. However, the progress of the elementary mentoring must begin one school district at a time.
Shakespeare’s character Macbeth is based on the historical figure of a Scottish nobleman called Macbeth who was the general for Duncan the first. He also became King after murdering Duncan on the battlefield and reined for ten years before being defeated in a battle against the Danes (Thrasher 35-36). “For brave Macbeth- well he deserves that name” is a passage from the war in the first chapter showing what the other warriors thought of Macbeth valor as a general for Duncan’s army (Macbeth 302). Then Shakespeare tells of Duncan’s death which he concocted the setting in Macbeth’s home to suit his needs. “I go, and it is done: the bell invites me. Hear it not, Duncan, for it is a knell That summons the to heaven, or to hell” this shows that Macbeth’s action where preplanned to kill Duncan as he slept (Macbeth p.321). Shakespeare’s account of who Macbeth was is close to the factual account even down to the fact that he murdered the former King Duncan and his battle with an army lead by Malcolm Canmore, the son of Duncan (Columbia University). Another character in Sha...
Over the course of the last century, the Islamic Republic of Iran (formerly known as Persia) has seen colonialism, the end of a dynasty, the installation of a government by a foreign power, and just over three decades ago, the popular uprising and a cleric-led revolution. These events preceded what could be considered the world’s first Islamic state, as politics and fundamentalist religion are inextricably linked in contemporary Iran. Looking at Iran from the mid 1940’s until the present day, one can trace the path that led to the rise of fundamental Islam in Iran in three distinct periods. The first is that which began with the rise of secular nationalism and the decline of Islam. In the second, the secular, western-friendly government eventually gave way to the Islamic revival in the form of a government takeover by hard-line clerics and disillusioned, fundamentalist youth; both motivated and led by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. Rule of Iran by these fundamentalist clerics then led to the formation of the fundamentalist Islamic theocracy that governs present-day Iran. The current government has some democratic appearances, but all real power is in the hands of the supreme leader, an Ayatollah who is chosen by the Assembly of Experts, a group of clerics chosen by the Guardian Council. With the Iranian Revolution, political Islam was born, with the fundamentalists holding the reins of power in Iran to the present day.
William Shakespeare’s tragedy play Macbeth bears little resemblance to the actual history of Scotland. Through his writing he praised King James I’s ancestor, Banquo, as an innocent victim who was betrayed by his good friend, Macbeth. However, in reality he helps Macbeth kill Duncan. Shakespeare even changed history by creating Macbeth as a dark and evil human and also including scenes of witchcraft. William drastically altered history for the approval and satisfaction of King James I.
Regarding physical qualities, everybody has their own idiosyncrasies or quirks, things which make them peculiar and yet interesting. These features make us who we are and even if we consider them as flaws, they still make us beautiful somehow. The 1957 film, Funny Face, was actually a tribute to the late Audrey Hepburn’s rather unusual, quirky facial features—her large nose, thick eyebrows, slightly crooked teeth, being doe-eyed—which all summed up to her being the epitome of a truly beautiful woman that she was (De La Hoz 6). Audrey Kathleen Ruston Hepburn embodied both essential aspects of inner and outer beauty which does not equate to being flawless. Voted as the “Most Beautiful Woman of All Time” in 2006 by New Woman magazine, it is evident that women today still look up to her as a truly beautiful woman (Keogh 2). She was one of the greatest film stars of the 20th century—some of her notable films were Funny Face, Roman Holiday, Breakfast at Tiffany’s—and at present, she is still a timeless Hollywood star and fashion icon. Furthermore, she was a philanthropist for the UNICEF organization—her only motive being to serve a cause she believed in (Spoto, 201). This innate, natural beauty she possessed clearly translated into how she presented herself to the world through her sense of style (Ferrer, 155). How she dressed clearly embodied who she was, which many women all over the world still aspire to be and which designers continue to try recreating. Audrey Hepburn’s timeless, individual style continues to influence the fashion world today.
Willetts, P. (2011), ‘Transnational actors and International Organisations in Global Politics’ in Baylis, J., Smith, S. and Owens, P. (eds) The Globalization of World Politics. An Introduction to International Relations. 5th edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press