Politics is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group. It refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance—organized control over a human community, particularly a state. The academic study focusing solely on politics, which is thus more specific than general political science, is sometimes referred to as politology (from Greek: πολιτικός—“of citizens” and λόγος—“science”).
In modern nation-states, people have formed political parties to represent their ideas. They agree to take collective action through voting for candidates for office or legislation they support in an attempt to influence public policy. Those who strongly favor limited government typically identify themselves as liberals; those who prefer greater government intervention may call themselves conservatives; libertarians want even less governmental interference with personal choices; and anarchists reject all forms of hierarchical power structures while still wanting participation in decision-making processes about issues that affect them directly. Many countries have parliaments or congresses where politicians debate proposed laws and vote upon them—either approving or rejecting them into law.
Political systems are usually defined by how they allocate formal power among different participants, such as leaders and citizens within society—including institutions like executive offices, legislatures, or judiciaries—and informal social influences over decision-making known as pressure groups and lobbies (elements not formally recognized). There are many different kinds of political systems around the world today, ranging from democracies where citizens can vote freely on policies being debated publicly up to authoritarian regimes with dictatorships ruling without input from anyone else outside the inner circle. In some cases, these governments will also include factors such as religion, which plays an important role in deciding certain matters related specifically to their jurisdiction, for instance, as seen in Islamic republics. A wide variety of ideologies exist under umbrella terms such as liberalism, conservatism, socialism, anarchism, communism, fascism, monarchy, absolutism, republicanism, corporatism, libertarianism, environmentalism, feminism, green politics, progressivism, religious fundamentalism, secular humanist thought, etc. Each ideology has distinct goals it wishes to achieve, depending on what values guide its adherents’ actions politically.
Most developed nations now use some form of representative democracy, which allows citizens to access information about candidates running for office before elections occur. Plus, they have direct input during ballot casting at polling places throughout each respective country, whether it be via paper ballots mailed in advance, online polls held in the days leading up to the election, and so forth. This is done accordingly based on the individual circumstances surrounding the particular electoral system itself, thus allowing individuals the opportunity to express their opinion by choosing the person whom they believe best represents their views in the context involved when doing so.
Allowing such freedoms does mean, however, that there are associated risks. For example, voter fraud, gerrymandering, and corrupt practices can be used to manipulate the outcome of votes cast. These risks must always be taken into account to protect the integrity of the democratic process, functioning properly on a long-term basis. Otherwise, it could lead to major problems down the line, potentially destabilizing an entire nation regionally and internationally.
For this reason, much effort is put into ensuring fairness and unbiasedness despite the obstacles faced along the way. The ultimate goal is to make sure that all voices are heard fairly and represented across the board, regardless of background, socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity, gender, orientation, age, disability, or any other characteristics distinguishing one individual from another amongst peers. This helps prevent the establishment of oligarchical dynasties and permanent rule by others to continue progressing forward.
As a side note, history has shown that situations have arisen in a similar fashion. Though preventive measures are hopefully in place to avoid future recurrences, the same thing happening again anytime soon or if ever is a possible scenario. If such an occurrence does happen, then corrective steps need to be taken to rectify the situation quickly and efficiently, putting it back on the right track once more, successively and sustainably in the long haul, in the interests of everyone looking out for themselves as well as their fellow men and women. Regardless of the differences between us humans, nothing is compared to the similarities shared together. These similarities bring us closer to understanding, accepting, tolerating, coexisting in peace and harmony, and creating a better tomorrow. Instead of adversarial confrontations that encourage divisions, separateness, hatred, and violence, we have seen in times past, let us hope for brighter days ahead. We should look forward positively and optimistically, embracing the possibilities that come our way and live our fullest lives to make planet Earth a great home we all deserve to share equally and equitably. Everybody should be concerned about this!