Effect of Female Principal's Management Styles on Teacher's Job satisfaction in Isfahan- Iran, Girls High Schools

Effect of Female Principal's Management Styles on Teacher's Job satisfaction in Isfahan- Iran, Girls High Schools

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Nowadays, Education has changed and developed fundamentally due to cultural, social and political changes. Education is under intense scrutiny by public and private interests who question the systems ability to fulfill its goals of teaching basic skills, instilling values, preventing dropouts, and producing a productive workforce. Such an incredible responsibility requires high committed to fulfilling the high expectations .Nurturing and educating the new generation have assigned to educational systems. Today, educational administration means: leadership, directing, reform and change. Therefore, achievement to high level goal of education in each society, demand renovation and reorganization and new thinking in management of educational systems (Allahabad, 2004). Educational Administration either in supervision and monitoring of financial and official affairs, in education or others that involving directly with development and implementation of educational program , have responsibility and tasks in achievement of essential objectives of educational administration as named facilitating teaching-learning process.
Schools must give more attention to teacher job satisfaction because it may promote efficiency and staff satisfaction. One of the important factors in improvement of psychological and spiritual energy for staff in the organization is promotion of job satisfaction in teachers. In fact, job satisfaction is a kind of emotional and affective coping with job and its conditions which it consists of two components: cognitive and behavioral. The cognitive aspect is indicator for staff believes about their job conditions and behavioral aspect means individuals trends to their job. Cognitive aspect has more validity than other behavioral aspects due to further relationship with individuals' attitudes. A successful education system is dependent upon a high quality teaching staff. In order to develop this high quality teaching staff, one must look at factors associated with teacher quality and retention. One of these factors is teacher job satisfaction. Job satisfaction can be defined as an overall feeling about ones job or career in terms of specifies, i.e. compensation, autonomy, coworkers; administration. Job satisfaction has been studied for many years. Happock (1935) was one of the first researchers to study job satisfaction. He found that workers were more satisfied with a supervisor who was understanding and helpful (as in cited, Bass, 1990). Frederick Herzberg (1959), psychologist and researcher studied job satisfaction because he believed higher satisfaction led to higher productivity, decreased absenteeism, and better working relations. He found that positive feeling about work, a sense of personal worth, and a sense of personal fulfillment were related to achievement and responsibility (Wetherell,2002).

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Lurnsden (1998) reported on job satisfaction among teachers. Teachers identified administrative support, leadership, good student behavior, a positive school atmosphere, and teacher autonomy as factors associated with higher job satisfaction. Parental support and workplace conditions were also positively related to job satisfaction. Salaries and benefits were found to be weakly related to job satisfaction.Derlin and Schneider (1994) studied job satisfaction of both principals and teachers. In their research, they found that, in urban areas, job satisfaction was most affected by teacher school climate and working conditions. In suburban areas, the most important factor was teacher involvement and empowerment. Winter and Sweeny (1994) also found that climate affects satisfaction. They identified areas in which administrators could focus on in order to improve climate. These were recognizing achievement, supporting teachers, encouragement, caring, and fairly enforcing school rules. Anderman et al. (1991) studied both school culture and principal leadership and its effect on job satisfaction. The analysis of the study showed that accomplishment, recognition, and affiliations were related to job satisfaction. The results indicated that principal's leadership behavior fostered different perceptions of teachers on school culture, and also in teacher satisfaction and commitment.
Reddin (1970) introduced a model of leadership style containing four basic types, namely Integrated, related, dedicated, and separated. Further, by measuring the level of effectiveness of each style Reddin developed this basic model into eight leadership styles. The modified model is called" The 3-D Theory of Managerial Effectiveness."It can be seen that the four less effective styles are Deserter, Missionary, Autocrat, and compromiser while executive which they describe briefly as following:

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