The first area where Clausewitz better characterized the nature of the Civil War was in how he viewed the strength of offense in relation to defense. There is little doubt that the Civil War proved Clausewitz’s assertion that the defense is the stronger form of war.
Jomini advocated that the “offensive was almost always advantageous.” I believe this is due to his experience with, and admiration of, Napoleonic-era tactics and weapons. Clausewitz viewed the opposite and stated in his writings that the terrain gave the defender a decided advantage.
There were many advances in weaponry, such as rifled muskets, during the Civil War. The increased accuracy and range made repeatedly attacking an enemy using Napoleonic tactics very difficult. Combatants slugged it out at an average of 116 yards; only slightly longer than the 80-100 yards usually seen with smoothbore muskets and half the range these rifles were capable of. Casualties were especially heavy at the 1863 Battles of Shiloh and Antietam. ...
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MINIE BALL. http://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/minie-ball (accessed May 2, 2014).
Murray, Wiliamson. "The Industrialization of War." In The Cambridge History of Warfare, edited by Geoffrey Parker, 227. New York, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Rean, Daniel. Shifting Strategies: Military Theory in the American Civil War. March 16, 2008. http://www.militaryhistoryonline.com/civilwar/articles/militarytheory.aspx (accessed March 30, 2014).
Shy, John. "Jomini." In Makers of Modern Strategy: from Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age, edited by Peter Paret. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1986.
Thompson, Robert. Battle of Cold Harbor: The Folley and Horror. October 26, 2006. http://www.historynet.com/cold-harbor (accessed May 1, 2014).
Trench Warfare at Petersburg. http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/war/map19.html (accessed April 30, 2014).
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