The Song of Roland is a historical text that also involves fiction. It recalls the event of Battle of Roncesvals that take place in 778 century among Christian Franks and Muslim Saracens. The non-fictional outline of The Song of Roland can be found in Einhard’s Vita Karoli Magni “Biography of Charlemagne” written in 817-30 and from Damaso Alonso’s Nota Emilianense. Both historical accounts give little detail of the battle in which Charlemagne’s (Holy Roman Emperor) army face a minor setback while returning back to France and in this event some important warriors were killed, among them was Roland, the most courageous. “At this point”, Robert Harrison state in introduction to The Song of Roland, “history leaves off and speculation begins”. (Harrison 11). The revenge of Roland’s death taken by Charlemagne, ...
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... not only misrepresent Christianity but also Islam. The Christianity was transformed and then uses to legitimate secular purposes of medieval Europe, which then becomes “Christendom”.
Davies, Norman, 1939-. Europe :A History. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1996. Print.
Fredrickson, George M., 1934-. Racism :A Short History. Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, 2002. Print.
Hobson, John M. The Eastern Origins of Western Civilisation. Eds. Cambridge University Press E-books (CRKN) - York University and Inc ebrary. Cambridge, UK ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 2004. Print.
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The Song of Roland. Ed. Robert L. 1932- Harrison. New York : New American Library, 1970. Print.
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