The Causes and Effects of Typhoid Fever Essay

The Causes and Effects of Typhoid Fever Essay

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In the late 19th century, health officials began to notice an increase of patients with acute stomach conditions, many with abnormal symptoms that are not common with typical digestive problems; populous metropolitan areas, including Chicago experienced high mortality rates, some as high as 174 per 100,000 people. Health officials later determined the cause to be Typhoid fever, a disease that dates back to early Victorian times.
Although preventive measures can be taken, over 21.5 million people annually become infected with Typhoid fever. In particular, areas with poor sanitation of water report higher rates of this disease. Typhoid fever is spread through contaminated water sources, making underdeveloped countries vulnerable to the infection.
The cause of Typhoid fever is Salmonella Typhi, a bacterium that can be found on contaminated food items. Infection begins with consuming food that is contaminated, often unknowingly.
Typhoid Fever is divided into 4 stages, each lasting for approximately one week. During the first stage, Salmonella Typhi begins it’s journey in the digestive system, where they multiply and reproduce, spreading into the bloodstream. Due to the body’s natural response to infection, a positive feedback mechanism activates, and the body begins to react by increasing the internal body temperature, causing symptoms of a fever, sometimes as high as 104° F.
After the first stage of Typhoid fever, patients may have severe changes in blood pressure, affecting the Cardiovascular System, as proper blood pressure is vital to support bodily functions. Due to the change in blood pressure, the patient may have symptoms of hypertension, which can damage the heart, and in some cases be fetal due to heart attack.
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...treatment, surgery may be required, commonly in cases of intestinal hemorrhage. In very rare cases, where the antibiotics do not eradicate the disease, surgical removal of the gallbladder may be required. Although rare, the Cholecystectomy may not always be effective in eradicating the disease, due to it’s persisting hepatic infection state.
Typhoid fever can be prevented several preventive measures. Using caution when traveling aboard is highly recommended by health professionals, and only drinking from bottled or purified water, as underdeveloped nations may have poorly sanitized water sources. Other preventive measures recommended by health professionals include getting vaccinated against Typhoid fever, practicing proper hand washing techniques, and avoiding raw or unwashed produce, as unwashed fruits and vegetables are sources for unwanted bacteria and parasite.

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