In general, drug services in prison have been divided into prevention, counselling, drug treatment service, self-help group, harm-reduction measures, and prelease and aftercare programme (Moeller, 2007). Theoretically, adults are more likely to be influenced by environment and then involved into drug use behaviour; therefore, different preventions and treatments should be applied in different scenarios of imprisonment: the one who have drug use behaviour before imprisonment, the one who might start drug use while incarceration, and post-release.
3.1 Initially drug use
The key strategies for those prisoners who have already had drug use behaviour are decreasing their dependence of drugs and then stop using drugs and, preventing them from involving in polydrug use and developing infectious diseases; therefore, treatment service is the key point in this target population. Additionally, the efficacy of treatment service depends on the duration of the intervention and would be well processed with additional service strategies, such as peer education, aftercare and post-release support (Turnbull& McSweeney, 2000).
Treatment for shrinking the number of drug dependence prisoners and decreasing the extent of drug abuse is considered as significance in the population who have initial drug use behaviours. There are two types of treatment; one is detoxification treatment and the other one is substitution treatment program. Nowadays, substitution treatment is widely used for almost 20 years; it estimated that more than five hundred thousand of participants have involved in the substitution treatment program in Europe (Moeller, 2007). Consequently, more and more countries have applied the substituti...
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...the service for general health issues; therefore, on the pressure of lack of money, employment chances, and general health care, target population might have a high proportion of re-incarceration, polydrug use, and overdose drug use after release.
Accordingly, to achieve effective and sufficient strategies and interventions among drug use behaviour prisoners, justice system and community support are significant and undoubtable. Justice system need to strengthen achievable treatment, and provide sufficient drug-free unit to protect non-drug use prisoners and develop the treatment efficacy, and encourage peer education and family support through internal vocational training and external professional counselling, as well as at least one year post-release planning. Community support would maintain and assist achievement after justice system intervention.
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