With the development of transportation and the acceleration of globalisation, tourism has become an important means to stimulate economic growth. According to the world tourism organisation (UNWTO), tourism has become the world’s fastest and largest economic sector. Moreover, international tourists have increase dramatically from near 25 million in 1950 to 996 million in 2011(Chang et al., 2014). However this figures have put high stress on not only environment but also on society and economy for the local areas.
Unsustainable tourism would have continuous impacts on society, environment and economy.
The unsustainable tourism would create problems of local environment such as the depletion of natural resources, including energy, food and other raw materials, pollution including air pollution, water pollution and solid waste and physical impacts on fragile areas (Davies & Cahill, 2000). Specifically, in order to meet the demand of a large number of tourists, the local authorities might have to depleted the local resources and establish infrastructure and recreational facilities. Moreover, significant amount of pollution would be produced by tourists, though transportation and littering. As a consequence, the non-renewable resources such as raw materials, fossil fuels and oil might be exhausted by unrestrained exploitation. In addition, the habitat of wildlife might be damaged by the destruction of wetlands. Finally, the balance of ecosystem and biodiversity would be destroyed.
Along with these environmental issues, unsustainable tourism would also cause social problems for host communities. Expansion of tourism sometimes has overcrowding phenomenon(Damon & Vaughan, 1995), which not o...
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...al pricing could be worked out (Christine Lee et al., 2008), which would create more income in peak seasons and promote travelling in off seasons to reduce the impacts of mass tourism. Secondly, those industries could release more advertisements during off seasons to increase the number of tourists. Organisations, which urge tourists to protect local environment and to respect local life, could also make a difference.
Unsustainable tourism has been existing for a long time, having continuous negative impacts on environment, society and economy. However, more than one solution could be given to address this problem. Reversing the trend requires the joint efforts of governments, institutions, residents and tourism industries. This problem must be addressed so that tourism could develop towards a sustainable way, environmentally, socially and economically.
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