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    NAT: Network Address Translation

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    As the internet network grew, the numbers of usable IP addresses were getting exhausted at a faster pace. NAT was designed to the solve the IP depletion problem. NAT definition NAT stands for Network address translation. It is a technology which is commonly used such that systems on the Local area network can communicate with the Public network and vice versa. In an organization, systems are deployed and configured in the LAN – Local area network. The LAN is the private network of the organization

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    NAT

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    Network Address Translation (NAT) is a standard used to allow multiple PCs on a private network to share a single, globally routable IPv4 address. NAT enables a user to have a large set of addresses internally and usually one address externally. The main reason NAT is often deployed is because IPv4 addresses are getting scarce. NAT is an immediate, but temporary, solution to the IPv4 address exhaustion problem that will eventually be rendered unnecessary with the deployment of the IPv6. The Internet

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    type of network will need to be setup appropriately to avoid issues and receive information from the latest source. And in order to guarantee business progression and future development, companies will need to cautiously develop some sort of plan for their company networks. This is just one option of many solutions for transitioning from IPv4 to IPv6, but can also be costly. Once the distinctions of the two are understood, it is important to understand the advantages that the Network Address Translation

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    proposal for your network will include hardware by Cisco, the leading manufacturer when it comes to networking equipment. My goal is to follow the Cisco 3 layer Hierarchical Model. This model of building a network gives better network performance with greater management, allows for scalability for future growth, and helps keep the network reliable by having redundancy for times when equipment needs to be serviced or goes down. This method also keeps the overall costs of building the network low. There are

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    Security

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    Security Security is essential to maintain a functioning network and productive employees. These security recommendations should be implemented to ensure a safe and secure operating network where there are minimal fears from outside influences such as viruses, spam and hacking activities. An electronic workplace policy will be implemented to protect the network from within. All employees are required to follow the electronic workplace policy which states that they are not to install any unauthorized

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    Decision Support Systems Used in Network Hardware How does data pass through the internet? If you said decision support systems, you are correct. In an indecisive world, network hardware devices uses decision support systems (DSS) to efficiently and effectively route data, in a local area network, with the least amount of errors and inconsistencies. Decision support systems are the brains behind network hardware, and would be near impossible for them to work without the intelligent core of each distinct

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    IP Address

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    As stated by the website howstuffworks.com (What is an IP address?), ‘An IP address is assigned to every device connected to the Internet. This is a 32 bit protocol, as it consists of 4 binary octets’. However they are usually written in decimal form for ease of use. The maximum decimal number allowed by one octet is 255 (or 11111111 in binary). The total number of unique possibilities of 4 octets would therefore be 256^4, roughly 4.3 billion addresses. Demand for IP addresses is increasing due

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    capturing packets from an outside source. This in turn allows for safe and secure communication between a user and his/her work. As communication is passed from one end to the other IPSec uses hashes to pass the data safely and securely. Within a large network of users, mass amounts of data can be passed through and with that comes many different systems in use. One major aspect of IPSec is that it can be centrally controlled and configured. Under different sets of user groups, workgroups and other configurations

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    Incident Handling Process of a DDoS Attack

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    Though the phrase “hacker” has been popularized over the last twenty years largely due to corporate data breaches and pop-culture references, most people outside the security community are unaware that the term does not accurately describe all types of cyber adversaries. There are different classes of hackers, most often differentiated by skill level and motivations for placing attacks. A more correct label for identifying Internet activists performing malicious actions such as those associated

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    Internet Security Threats

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    attacks, DOS(denial of service) attacks, spider attacks, worms and socail attacks. Also, I will cover different security practices and computer software and hardware that can help protect and prevent these different attacks on your computer, or network. Many people use the words virus, trojan, and worm interchangeably when talking about attacks on their computer, but in reality, they are different types of attacks, this paper will define and differentiate between the different types of attacks

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    The Ethics in Securing the Internet

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    The Ethics in Securing the Internet Introduction In order to understand the concept of internet security and why it is necessary it would be worthy of analysis to discuss what would happen if not enough of it is provided, meaning that the levels of security are not utilized to the full extents. This is exactly where the big issue of hacking and hackers becomes involved. Hackers can benefit from a wide range of weaknesses in security, break into systems, find the information they need,

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    IPv4 network. The four major issues are address space, security, network congestion, and packet loss. • Address space is due to number of increasing devices connected to the internet, IPv4 addresses can only accommodate about 400 hosts for United Technologies network. This is a significant limitation as more devices are being added to the network. • Security and IPv4 does not provide any security like authenticating packets when they are transmitted or encryption of the data. • Network congestion

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    Ipv4 Case Study

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    IPv4 addresses, in the future certain websites will only maintain IPv6 and the Internet becomes a dual IPv4/IPv6 network. This means that in order for a user to connect with your customers, co workers, users and to guarantee that your website remains easy to get to all Internet users, in particular in rising markets; you need to make sure you also have IPv6. And that your network and IT personnel are aware and prepared for the changeover. Time is running out. There still will be ipv4 addresses

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    DIRECT CONNECT MANUAL

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    How use Direct Connect behind a firewall/router in Active Mode instead of Passive 1.     Determine your WAN IP address and your LAN IP address; this can be done either by using winipcfg.exe or ipconfig.exe in my case looking on the status page of my Linksys router configuration. 2.     Now set up DC by going to settings connection and marking the block use Direct Connect in Active Mode, In the force DC to accept connections on this port: I have 412 (I’m not sure if this matters but it has worked

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    Router Comparison

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    Connecting remote offices or home PC’s to the Internet and corporate networks can be troublesome, requiring a balance of bandwidth limitations, security concerns and firewall functionality. Simple setup is also a necessity, so less-experienced users can easily get these fairly complex systems up and running. In addition, the cost of communication hardware and software must be kept to a minimum to meet tight budgets. The routers also offer firewall protection for security, productivity and operational

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    Description of Cisco IOS Vulnerabilities

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    Vulnerabilities 3. GNS3 Setup A network topology in GNS3 (Graphical Network Simulator) is used in conjunction with Backtrack 5 to demonstrate the exploit tools of Cisco. The topology consists of three routers connected to one switch which is connected to a cloud. The cloud will act as Backtrack. The network address is 192.168.6.0/24. Each router is configured with separate IP addresses in the network. Backtrack is connected to the cloud on the same Vmnet custom network. (See Figure 3-1 below). Figure

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    Firewall is nothing but the security system which isolates outer system network from inner system network so as to prevent from viruses, spams, malware, unauthorized access by hackers etc. So firewall can be software oriented security system or it can be a hardware oriented security system. All the requests or responses which go through the firewall are needed to pass some specific security criteria, if they pass they are sent to particular user and if they don’t pass the criteria then they are

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    The Firewall

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    The Firewall WHAT IS A NETWORK FIREWALL? A firewall is a system or group of systems that enforces an access control policy between two or more networks. The means by which this control is accomplished varies widely, but in principle, the firewall is a pair of mechanisms, one that blocks traffic and one that permits traffic. Some firewalls emphasize blocking traffic, while others emphasize permitting traffic. The most important thing to recognize about a firewall is that it implements an access

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    you can see, the Physical address of the Wireless LAN adapter in all three cases is F4-B7-E2-F1-74-57 and also the Physical address of the Ethernet Adapter in both the cases is 3C-97-0E-91-C8-12. But the IP address is different. It is 10.0.0.57 for Comcast, 192.168.43 for Mobile Hotspot and 172.25.207.42 for UHSECURE WIFI. So, it is clear that IP addresses are Network specific while MAC addresses are device specific. Now, “Why do we need both IP address and MAC address to a Single device?” We analyze

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    has the following CIDR entries in the routing table: Address/Mask Next Hop 135.46.56.0/22 Interface 0 135.46.60.0/22 Interface 1 192.53.40.0/23 Router 1 Default Router 2 For each of the following IP addresses, what does the router do if a packet with that address arrive? 1. 135.46.63.10 Ans: The router will check the routing entry starting with the longest prefix (/23), 192.53.40.0/23. /23 mean network address is 23 bit and the corresponding network mask is 255.255.255.0. 135.45.63.10 and 255.255.254

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