Utilitarianism is a normative ethical theory which has been established and defended by two renowned philosophers named Jeremy Bentham and John Stewart Mill. It falls under the branch of normative ethics, which deals with a lower-level examination of ethical questions and addresses questions about what actions are morally right or wrong, and the moral correctness of actions and the standards that govern them. Utilitarianism is a consequentialist theory which endorses that an action is morally acceptable if it has the right kind of outcome or consequence. The intent of an action or the reasoning behind it is disregarded in utilitarianism. Happiness is simply quantified in terms of the satisfaction of a majority, independent of the beliefs of the majority or their intentions.
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...ism and have given a detailed argument that holds the innocent bystander objection valid against any form of utilitarianism. Through detailed examples illustrated in this essay, the readers can get a clear understanding of how a utilitarian might react in sacrificial scenarios. I have also addressed some possible counter objections to the innocent bystander objection and have provided responses to them. In the end, we must keep in mind the fact that 'happiness' is very subjective and actually is simply a series of chemical actions in the human brain. It's 'feel good' factor does not justify the objective worth it may have. Merely satiating emotions does not make 'happiness' logically just and morally right.
Sober, E. (2009). Core questions in philosophy: A text with readings. (5th ed., pp. 411-426). Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson Prentice Hall.
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