This theory judges the morality of an action based on the actions adherence to a set of rules. It is explained as an action is morally right if it is required by duty, and should not conflict with any other action required by another duty. By doing our duty we do what is valuable, this theory focuses on the structure of moral judgment. One should act regardless of your own aims or self-interest. Kant formalism is based on deontology and are united and their opposition to purely oppose the consequentiality moral thinking; some even hold that a morally wrong may have entirely good consequences, and a morally right on entirely bad consequences (Frankena, 1973.
Available at: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/difference-between-code-ethics-conduct-2724.html [Accessed 1 May. 2014]. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, (2008). Computer and Information Ethics. [online] Available at: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-computer/#DefComEth [Accessed 30 Apr.
Two objections to utilitarianism will be examined, as well as Louis Pojman’s responses to those objections in Ethics: Discovering Right and Wrong. It will be shown that Pojman presents an adequate defense of utilitarianism, and that utilitarianism succeeds as a worthwhile moral theory. Act-Utilitarianism is the thesis that “an act is right if and only if it results in as much good as any available alternative” (Pojman 110). One conspicuous problem with the thesis is that it suggests that correct moral actions will often clash with our intuitions about basic moral norms. For example, Pojman refers to Richard Brandt’s criticism in which he points out that the act-utilitarian seems to be committed to helping the needy above one’s own family, repaying debts only if there is no better use for the money, and ending the lives of those who are a drain on others (Pojman 110).
Teleological ethical systems are the opposite of deontological systems. It judges the consequences of the act rather than judging the act itself. If the results can be considered good consequences, then the act must have been good (Frankena, 1973, 14). The phrase "the end justifies the means" that has been used many times in many different situations suggests that the end result is justified by the means that were used to achieve the outcome. This is a consequentialist type of statement.
"PLATO." Republic. http://www.uri.edu/personal/szunjic/philos/republ.htm (accessed February 9, 2014). Wilson, Jeffery Dirk. "Plato's Republic."
(Foot 1972: 311). Morality and its standards are often assumed to be 'intrinsically' motivating, and this is how they regulate society's behaviour. (Prinz in Batson 2011:41). Yet Batson suggests rather than intrinsically motivating, we conform to the principles to avoid social and self-rewards, where we are viewed as morally good. Morality for Kant is determined by whether certain moral actions could be turned into a universal maxim.
Lloyd, Sharon A. Hobbes Moral . 14 March 2014. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/hobbes-moral/. Plato. Republic, trans. 1992. http://www.iep.utm.edu/justwest/.
Web. Robinson, H. (2004). Substance. In Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved January 30, 2014 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/substance/.
Kant argued that the Categorical Imperative (CI) was the test for morally permissible actions. The CI states: I must act in such a way that I can will that my maxim should become a universal law. Maxims which fail to pass the CI do so because they lead to a contradiction or impossibility. Kant believes this imperative stems from the rationality of the will itself, and thus it is necessary regardless of the particular ends of an individual; the CI is an innate constituent of being a rational individual. As a result, failure ... ... middle of paper ... ...d in the discussion of promise keeping and beneficence, identifiable logical or practical contradictions arise when attempting to universalize morally impermissible maxims (according to the CI).