Theories of Crime Essay example

Theories of Crime Essay example

Length: 2092 words (6 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Term Papers

Open Document

Essay Preview

Many theories of crime are macro theories, which are used to explain crime based on a large group of people or society. While macro theories are the predominant type of theory used to explain crime, there are also a variety of “individual”, or micro, factors which are equally important. Two such individual factors s are maternal cigarette smoking (MCS) and cognitive ability, or Intelligence Quotient (IQ).

MCS has been shown to negatively impact the neurological development of a fetus, with serious damage to the nervous system. Medical studies have also concluded that smoking during pregnancy is a known cause of fetal hypoxia, or lack of oxygen, which can stunt fetal brain development. Studies have suggested that these physical impacts can stunt the development of cognitive abilities and cause anti-social behavior, which in turn can be linked to criminal behavior. (Piquero, Gibson, et al, 2002, Pg. 232) In 1999, a study conducted by Patricia Brennan concluded that maternal cigarette smoking was a predictor for both violent and nonviolent crime. (Piquero, Gibson, et al, 2002, Pg. 235) This study also concluded that a lack of cognitive abilities due to maternal cigarette smoking can lead to the development of antisocial behavior. Children who suffer from these effects grow into adults who are less likely to resist the temptation of crime and show signs of deviant behavior.

Cognitive abilities, or our IQ, are basic skills which enable us to learn, solve problems, and carry out simple tasks. Cognitive ability is important when attempting to explain crime because it has been suggested that individuals with low cognitive ability may not be able to understand the lasting effects or consequences associated with their action...


... middle of paper ...


.... (2006). Empirical Status of Deterrence Theory: A meta-analysis. Transaction Publications, Volume 15, 367-395.
McGloin, P. a. (2004). Rethinking the IQ-Delinquency Relationship: a Longitudinal Analysis of Multiple Theoretical Models. Justice Quarterly, 604-635.
Pratt, M. a. (2006). Maternal Cigarette Smoking During Pregnancy and Criminal Deviant Behavior. International Journal of Offender Therapy, 231-248.
Pratt, T. C., & Cullen, F. T. (2005). Assessing Macro-Level Theories and Predictors of Crime. Crime and Justice, Volume 32, 373-450.
Pratt, T. C., & Godsey, T. W. (2003). Social Support, Inequality, and Homicide: A Cross National Test of Integrated Theoretical Model. Criminology, Volume 1, 611-632.
Unnever, C. a. (2003). Parental Management, ADHD, and Delinquent Involvement: Reassessing Gottfredson and Hirschis General Theory. Justice Quarterly, 472-500.


Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Theories of Causation of Crime and Its Solution Essay

- If we studied through the history of criminal theory, spiritual and natural theories are taken as major theories of causation of crime. During medieval period, spiritual explanations were taken as punishment given by god for doing wrong things and any natural disasters like flood, fires, etc were evaluated as curse of high power. In modern period, the basic theories of causation of crime are classical theory, biological theory, psychological theory, cultural theory and conflict theory....   [tags: Crime ]

Term Papers
1238 words (3.5 pages)

Theories of Crime and Criminal Activity Essay

- Theories of Crime and Criminal Activity Every theory of crime has at least 2-3 meta-theoretical levels above it. The fundamental issues are usually addressed at the approach level, and are often called the assumptions, or starting points, of a theory, although the term "assumptions" more strictly refers to the background or domain boundaries one can draw generalizations about. Above the approach level is the Perspective level, the largest unit of agreement within a scientific community, and in fact, the names for the scientific disciplines....   [tags: Crime Psychology ]

Term Papers
1492 words (4.3 pages)

Theories of Crime Essay

- Juvenile delinquency is a social issue that has been without much success with regards to its redress. This has mostly been contributed to failures to fully understand the concept. The best way to address such an issue can only be through the understanding of the causation mechanism that has led to the situation. There is a dire need to get an understanding of the causes of juvenile delinquency within the society being the only way to adequately comes up with preventive measures against delinquency....   [tags: Criminology ]

Term Papers
919 words (2.6 pages)

Strain Theories of Criminal Behaviour Essay

- Strain theories of criminal behaviour have been amongst the most important and influential in the field of criminology. Taking a societal approach, strain theories have sought to explain deficiencies in social structure that lead individuals to commit crime (Williams and McShane 2010). Strain theories operate under the premise that there is a societal consensus of values, beliefs, and goals with legitimate methods for achieving success. When individuals are denied access to legitimate methods for achieving success, the result is anomie or social strain....   [tags: Strain Theories of Crime]

Term Papers
2001 words (5.7 pages)

Anomie and General Strain Theories of Crime Essay

- ... Innovation means that one accepts the goals but rejects the means. This individual has a “by any means necessary” attitude when it comes to the attainment of goals. Rebellion means that one rejects both the means and the goals. They may substitution those goals and means with their own goals and means. Ritualism means that one rejects the goals and responds to the means in a slavish and conforming attitude. Retreatism means one rejects both the goals and means, but they do not replace with their own goals and mean....   [tags: Emile Durkheim concepts]

Term Papers
1277 words (3.6 pages)

Theories on Why Crime Occurs Essay example

- ... Wilson and Kelling (1982) ascertains that disorder and fear are closely linked, because there is disorder there is a fear or perception of crime which leads to community members taking precautionary measures and unattended disordered causes a break down in community control (Wagers, Sousa, & Kelling, 2008, p.254). Broken windows theory suggests that areas that suffer community breakdown by disorder are more vulnerable to crime as disorder shows opportunity for potential offenders to commit crime....   [tags: Broken Window, society, routine activity, ]

Term Papers
1303 words (3.7 pages)

Theories of Organized Crime Essay

- Organized Crime is a complicated animal. It is defined as “transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals, who intend to engage in illegal activity, most commonly for monetary profit.” (FBI, 2010). Organized crime is unique in its requirement of an organizational element. This organizational structure helps differentiate the definition of organized crime from that of simply a group of people involved in criminal activity. (FBI, 2010). According to Kristin Finklea, an organized crime analyst, in a 2010 report to congress, certain organizational elements are necessary for the organizational aspect as required for organizational crime....   [tags: legal issues, criminal groups]

Term Papers
1400 words (4 pages)

The Theories of Porfiry in Dostoevsky's Crime and Punishment Essay

- The Theories of Porfiry in Crime and Punishment Raskolnikov commits a murder. He has a theory. Porfiry is an investigator. He too has a theory. Porfiry's is getting closer and closer to winning. Porfiry Petrovich believes many things about criminal nature--and therefore he believes these things will happen to Raskolnikov, the man that he has pinned as the perpetrator or the murder. He uses the comparison of a butterfly moving closer to a candle, the fact that if he lets the criminal wallow in mixed freedom and terror he will be able to complete a mathematical proof of the crime, and that the criminal's best move is to tell the truth, during which endeavor he will ultimately lie...   [tags: Dostoevsky Crime and Punishment]

Free Essays
447 words (1.3 pages)

19th Century Theories in Dostoevsky's Crime and Punishment Essay

- 19th Century Theories in Dostoevsky's Crime and Punishment "I teach you the Superman. Man is something that has to be surpassed. What have you done to surpass him?" These words said by Friedrich Nietzsche encompass the theories present in Dostoevsky's nineteenth century novel, Crime and Punishment. Fyodor Dostoevsky, living a life of suffering himself, created the character of Raskolnikov with the preconceptions of his own sorrowful and struggling life. Throughout his exile in Siberia from 1849-1859, his sentiments of suffering, sorrow, and the common man surfaced and heightened, inspiring him to begin writing Crime and Punishment in 1859....   [tags: Crime Punishment Essays]

Term Papers
2467 words (7 pages)

Orthodox Theories on Crime and Deviance and Crime and Deviance in the Caribbean

- Orthodox Theories on Crime and Deviance and Crime and Deviance in the Caribbean Breaking the law is typically understood as something deviant and is needed to be reduced. There is a constant goal by governments to lower crime rates in their country but crime, surprisingly, is considered by most Functionalists as being “healthy for society.” Without crime society can fall apart. The orthodox view is that crime in developing countries is the product of social change. It is a transformation from a traditional to a more modern stage of development....   [tags: Papers]

Free Essays
1067 words (3 pages)