Friendships are the closest relationships that children have with individuals of their own age (Berndt) and establishing positive relationships with peers is seen as a vitally important developmental task during childhood (Sroufe and Rutter, 1984). Piaget (1932/1965) argued that close peer relationships were essential for the development of morality and the influence exercised on children by their peers has long been recognised. Bronfenbrenner (1970) argued that peer pressure leads to antisocial behaviour by adolescents, including the expression of aggressive behaviours. Aggression is an important behaviour to consider because it is known to have a negative impact on development. Childhood aggression reliably predicts aggressive behaviour in adolescence (Cairns et al, 1989) and has emerged as the strongest risk factor for delinquency, crime and substance abuse during adolescence and adulthood (Patterson et al, 1991).
Failure to follow the rules leads to the punishment by parents and parents usually do not explain the reasoning behind the rules. Authoritarian parenting impacts not only on the current relationship between the parents and child but it also brings the long-term effect on emotional development of child towards the adulthood (Miller, 2010). According to Williams (2009), the authoritarian parenting style can lead to greater social withdrawal in children with low behavioral impulse and greater acting out behavior in children with high behavioral impulse. The externalization of anti-social behavior in children is linked with authoritarian parenting style as a result of low parental warmth, inconsistency and harsh discipline towards the children (Ehrensaft , Wassrman, Greenwald, , Miller, & Davies, 2003). According to studies (Asher 2006), the largest percentages 46% of parents or guardians of juveniles for felony offenses are identified most closely with an authoritarian style of parenting.
Determinants and consequences of associating with deviant peers during preadolescence and adolescence. The Journal of Early Adolescence. Warr, M. (1996). Organization and instigation in delinquent groups*. Criminology, 34(1), 11-37.
It can be nearly impossible to narrow down the causes of delinquency in youth as the factors do vary from adolescent to adolescent. There has been extensive research into family factors and how they relate to delinquency. Researchers have looked in several theories and models to specific attributes of gender, socioeconomic status, race, and the family structure itself. Definitions • Juvenile delinquency: conduct by a juvenile characterized by antisocial behavior that is beyond parental control and therefore subject to legal action; a violation of the law committed by a juvenile and not punishable by death or life imprisonment (Merriam-Webster, 2014). • Parenting: behavior of the parent that is directed toward the child and therefore included such practices as punishment, monitoring, and communication (Hoeve, Dubas, Eichelsheim, van der Laan, Smeemk, & Gerris, 2009).
A teen’s peers also play a large role in how the teen behaves when the parents are not around. A teen’s social environment, consisting of family and peers, plays a vital role in their life, therefore becoming the ultimate cause of juvenile delinquency. A finding that emerges very strongly and consistently is that delinquents have very poor relationships with their parents” (Gove 303-304). The teens who commit crimes often lack a parental figure in their lives. These teens are not strictly overseen by their parents, and their parents rarely know what they are up to or what they are doing (Gove 303).
Law and human behavior, 26(2), 219. Sharp, C., & Kine, S. (2008). The assessment of juvenile psychopathy: Strengths and weaknesses of currently used questionnaire measures. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 13(2), 85-95. Leistico, A. M. R., Salekin, R. T., DeCoster, J., & Rogers, R. (2008).
Policy and Practice of Public Human Services, 67(3), 14-16. Sylvestre, A., & Mérette, C. (2010). Language delay in severely neglected children: A cumulative or specific effect of risk factors? Child Abuse & Neglect, 34(6), 414-428. Trickett, P. K., & McBride-Chang, C. (1995).
Children's antisocial behavior, mental health, drug use, and educational performance after parental incarceration: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychological bulletin, 138(2), 175. Odgers, C. L., Caspi, A., Russell, M. A., Sampson, R. J., Arsenault, L., & Moffitt, T. E. (2012). Supportive parenting mediates widening neighborhood socioeconomic disparities in children’s antisocial behavior from ages 5 to 12. Development and psychopathology, 24(3), 705.
Relationship between Juvenile Delinquency and Family Structure There is little debate about the importance of family structure and parental guidance in raising a child. The family is a child’s initial means of learning and socialization. Research has found correlations between poor family structures and juvenile delinquency. There has been, however, some debate about the significance of these relationships. There are many factors of the home that may influence delinquent behaviors such as broken homes due to divorce or death of a parent, parental supervision and discipline, and parental characteristics that may influence deviant behavior in their children.
Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology, 48(3), 345-355. doi:10.1007/s00127-012-0549-y Wark, M., Kruczek, T., & Boley, A. (2003). Emotional neglect and family structure: impact on student functioning. Child Abuse & Neglect, 27(9), 1033-1043. doi:10.1016/S0145-2134(03)00162-5 Wright, M. O. ’., Crawford, E., & Del Castillo, D. (2009).