The State of Food Insecurity in the World

The State of Food Insecurity in the World

Length: 712 words (2 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Excellent

Open Document

Essay Preview

More ↓

Food security is an urgent subject that has been extensively debated in scientific fields. Considering the main definition of food security already presented, food insecurity exists when people do not have condition to ensure their food security. Despite the fact that food insecurity is usually associated with hunger, underweight, and undernourishment, we can assume that food insecurity is also related to nutritional disorders like overweight and obesity.
Given the needs of the world population for food, ensuring food security for humanity is a global challenge that needs attention. Approximately one billion people are fighting against hunger (FAO 2013), and approximately 2 billion are overweight (Patel 2008), meaning that nearly half of the world has some abnormality feed. So, it is possible to consider that the global food system is not aligned to global food needs (De Schutter 2011). India, for example, is a country with alarming portions of its population with food anomalies, both in terms of overweight/obesity and hunger/undernourishment (Doak et al. 2005; Stein et al. 2005).
The alarming increase in the consumption of unhealthy food products (e.g. soft drinks and processed foods with high levels of salt, fat, sodium and sugar) brings concerns related to global food security, malnutrition, and public health. Evidence indicates that the growth in consumption of such "unhealthy" foods has been higher in low and middle income countries (LMICs) than in high income countries (HICs) (Stuckler et al. 2012). Thus, it is reasonable to assume that the negative effects of the high intake of such foods, considering the aggravation of the nutritional anomalies arising from food insecurity will severely increase in developing countries.
Despite the fact that one of the main goals of the millennium is the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger by 2015 (United Nations 2013), many developing nations are still facing severe problems of hunger and undernourishment. Indeed, the global performance in combating hunger needs better delineated actions aiming to fight this reality (FAO 2010a). Evidences show that some countries, mostly African and Asian countries, have insufficient performance in their fight against hunger, undernourishment, and underweight diagnoses (FAO 2010b). Despite the efforts of humanity fighting global scenario, in 2011-2013 about 842 million people were suffering from chronic hunger (FAO 2013b). Thus, about 65% of the world’s population that suffers from hunger lives in seven countries (India, China, Democratic Republic of Congo, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Pakistan and Ethiopia) (FAO 2010a). African and Asian countries are those with the worst conditions in terms of food security as well as the worst progress towards achieving the millennium goal related to eradicate hunger (FAO 2013b; FAO 2010b).

How to Cite this Page

MLA Citation:
"The State of Food Insecurity in the World." 19 Aug 2018

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Essay on Insecurity and its implications

- “The task we must set to ourselves is not to feel secure, but to be able to tolerate insecurity”- Erich Fromm In today’s world, where the true meaning of beauty lies within the media and what the society dictates to people. Many do not realize that this could lead to insecurities. Merriam- Webster’s Dictionary defines insecurity as being not confident or sure. In addition to the definition published by the Merriam-Webster, it was on the other hand, defined as lack of self-confidence or assurance by the Dictionary reference online....   [tags: PEPSI, emotional, communication skills]

Research Papers
2441 words (7 pages)

Essay on Food Sovereignity

- We live in a world that is increasingly becoming globalised but also in a world where only a few have a lot. This correlation is no coincidence and feeds back into the idea of capitalism and comparative advantages. This skewered power balance puts into perspective the need to control the masses, and what better way to do this then through the control of their most basic need: food. This perspective on why food insecurity is increasing will question the power over production and the political control over hunger....   [tags: hunger, food security, diet, nutrition, poverty]

Research Papers
2193 words (6.3 pages)

Essay about Food Conservation

- What is food. Food is any matter consumed to obtain nutritional sustenance for the living organisms. It may be of animal or plant origin, usually consisting of nutrients like carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins and minerals. It is orally ingested and after passing through a series of processes involving enzymatic actions it is assimilated and the energy obtained is used by the organism to carry out processes like growth, maintenance of life and carrying out physical activities....   [tags: Conservation]

Research Papers
3883 words (11.1 pages)

South Sudan: Challenges Facing Africa's Newest State Essay

- With the continued development of third-world countries becoming more of a trend, international powers expect that the world is making a larger shift towards total democracy. With the establishment of one of the world’s newest states, South Sudan has many challenges ahead of them yet to conquer in their quest of total independence. How can one make sense of the international relations of establishing a new state. Since secession is not a new theory, we should outline and map the challenges faced by the country of South Sudan....   [tags: Diplomacy]

Research Papers
1729 words (4.9 pages)

Working Poor: Food Insecurity Essay

- Intervention There are several programs in the Muncie area that assist those who are dealing with food insecurity. Some of these programs are: Indiana school breakfast and lunch program, Second Harvest Food bank and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance program. These three programs help those who suffer from food insecurity but do so in different ways. The Indiana School Breakfast and Lunch Program is a program open to those children who live in a low income household. “National School Lunch Program (NSLP) is a Federal entitlement program open to public and nonprofit private schools and residential child care institutions....   [tags: food bank, emergency food, shelters]

Research Papers
1285 words (3.7 pages)

Community Agriculture Development and Jobs Act: A Proposed Solution to Food Deserts

- Community Agriculture Development and Jobs Act: A Proposed Solution to Food Deserts “There can be no sustainable world without sustainable cities.” (Deelstra, 2000) This applies to many aspects of a city, but what is more important than the topic of fresh food. Sustainable foods will be the foundation of the wellbeing of a community. We not only need these nutrients to support our bodies every day, but it also supports the wellbeing of a society. So why are we ignorant to how many cities are lacking fresh food....   [tags: Agricultural Research ]

Research Papers
1476 words (4.2 pages)

How Well is the United States Doing in Reaching the Goal of Food Security?

- How well is the United States doing in reaching the goal of food security. Data from the United States Department of Agriculture show 14.5 percent of American households were unable to provide adequate food to contribute to a healthy life for members of the household during 2012, and 85.5 percent of households remained food secure during the year. However the remaining 14.5 percent (17.6 million households) were food insecure and those households (low and very low food security) experienced worries and difficulties during the year providing food and since 2008 food insecurity has not change in the U.S....   [tags: locally grown produce]

Research Papers
556 words (1.6 pages)

World Hunger and Poverty Essay example

- According to the US Census Bureau, America’s official poverty rate in 2012 was 15.0 percent, representing 46.1 million people living on or below the poverty line. In that same year, 26.5 million people ages 18 to 64 (13.7%) were in poverty compared to 16.1 million children under 18 (21.8%) and 3.9 million ages 65 and older (9.1%). As far as education goes, 49.4 million people are enrolled in school from pre-k to 12th grade. With 14.9 million high school students, the current dropout rate for all American states combined is 7 percent, 1.1 million students, and the main causes of dropouts are due to poverty....   [tags: employment, California, education, students]

Research Papers
1437 words (4.1 pages)

Essay about Information is the Acknowledgement of Facts

- Information is the acknowledgement of facts and physical happenings that can be seen, observed and analyzed. While knowledge, on the other hand, is linked to the critical assessment of one’s perceptions and comprehension of the inferences being drawn from the observed facts. Knowledge also encompasses the ability to feel that is hidden and implicated in this universe as well as in the behavior and dealings of our fellow human beings. Information and knowledge often go hand in hand but the status of information is often misunderstood and elevated to that of knowledge which occupies a higher place in the column; since, it plays a definite role in the development of a person’s personality by e...   [tags: science, world hunger, ignorance]

Research Papers
1284 words (3.7 pages)

Consumerism in Post World War II Essay examples

- Consumerism in Post World War II After WWII why did the economy prosper and what role did consumerism play in the 1950s. After WWII many economists predicted a recession in the American economy. It is easy to do so when at the peak of post war unemployment in March 1946 2.7 million searched for work. In 1945 people were laid off from their jobs. However, “ in 1945 the US entered one of its longest, steadiest, periods of growth and prosperity” (Norton 829). How could this be. With many new developments affecting the United State’s social and economic behavior, the wealth of the nation burgeoned....   [tags: Papers]

Research Papers
1482 words (4.2 pages)

Furthermore, regarding hunger and undernourishment, evidence shows that children are strongly affected by these nutritional disorders worldwide. Indeed, undernourishment can be associated with the deaths of 5 million children a year (aged under 5 years) in developing countries (UNICEF 2006a). Thus, around 146 million children living in developing economies are underweight (UNICEF 2007), mostly concentrated in South Asia and Africa (UNICEF 2006b).
Regarding nutritional intake, undernourishment related to low ingestion of protein, iron and vitamin A is faced as one of the main problems of child health. Also, nutritional issues are highly associated with risk of morbidity, mortality, child growth and child development (Ribas et al. 1999). In fact, severe undernourishment can compromise significantly cognitive capabilities of individuals in an irreversible way (Dobbing 1972). Thus, undernourished children are especially vulnerable to diseases and can die from common infections, such as measles and diarrhea (Caulfield, et al., 2004).
Furthermore, associating the concept of food insecurity to the obesogenic severity, we need to be aware that the current global environment is becoming severely obese (Swinburn et al. 1999), since significant portions of world’s population present symptoms of overweight and obesity. This pandemic problem (Gill 1997) has negative impacts to individuals and societies (Nederkoorn et al. 2006). Also, overweight and obesity have many causes like genetic, physiologic/metabolic, socio-behavioral and environmental (Bouchard 1991; Bouchard 1994; Weinsier et al. 1998; Blundell et al. 2005). However, the impact of nutritional habits and dietary models are obviously a significant factor related to these nutritional disorders. This study does not aim to contemplate the drivers or consequences of the obesogenic severity. However, we aimed to present evidences regarding the association level between the dietary models, the balance level of these models and the nutritional disorders associated with food insecurity (undernourishment/hunger and overweight/obesity).

Works Cited

Babaleye, T. (2005). Can cassava solve Africa's food crisis? African Business. 314, 24-25.

Balentine, D.A., Albano, M.C., &Nair, M.G. (1999). Role of medicinal plants, herbs and spices in protecting human health. Nutr Rev. 57, S41–S45.

Barrett, C.B. (2010). Measuring food insecurity. Science. 327 (5967), 825-828.

Barrett, C.B. (2002). Food Assistance and Food Security Programs, in: Gardner B.L., Rausser, G.C. (Eds.), Handbook of Agricultural Economics, Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, Vol. 2B.

Basorun, J.O. (2010). Food Security among Households: Evidence from Rice Consumers in Igbemo Region. Journal of Social Sciences. 6(1), 41-46.

Blundell, J., Stubbs, R.J., Golding, C., Croden, F., Alam, R., Whybrow, S., Le Nourya, J., & Lawtona, C. L. (2005). Resistance and susceptibility to weight gain: individual variability in response to a high fat diet. Physiology and Behavior. 86(5), 614–622.

Bouchard, C. (1991). Current understanding of the etiology of obesity: Genetic and nongenetic factors. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.53(6), 1561S– 1565S.

Bouchard C. (1994). Genetics of obesity: Overview and research direction. In C. B. Bouchard (Eds.), The Genetics of Obesity (pp. 223–233). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Caballero, B. (2005).A nutrition paradox – underweight and obesity in developing countries. N Engl J Med. 352, 1514–1516. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp048310.

Caulfield, L.E., Onis, M., Blössner, M.,& Black, R. E. (2004). Undernutrition as an underlying cause of child deaths associated with diarrhea, pneumonia, malaria, and measles. Am J Clin Nutr. 80(1), 193-198.

Craig, W. J. (1999). Health-promoting properties of common herbs. Am J Clin Nutr. 70, 4918–4998.

De Schutter, O. (2011). Report submitted by the Special Rapporteur on the right to food. Geneva: United Nations. Available at: (accessed 25 November, 2012).

Devereux, S., & Maxwell, S. (2001). Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa, ITDG, London.

Doak, C., Adair, L.S., & Bentley, M. (2005). The dual burden household and nutrition transition paradox. Int J Obesity. 29, 129–136. doi: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0802824.

Dobbing, J. (1972). Nutrition, the nervous system and behavior. OPAS. 251.

Eckholm, E., & Record, F. (1976). The two faces of malnutrition. Worldwatch. Available at: . (accessed 15 May, 2013).

Eppolito, H., & Papareschi, A. (2009). Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Health, Nova Science Publishers, New York.

FAO (1996). Rome Declaration on World Food Security and World Food Summit Plan of Action. World Food Summit, 13-17 November 1996, Rome.

FAO(2002). The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2001. Rome, pp. 4-7.

FAO (2010a). Global hunger declining, but still unacceptably high: International hunger targets difficult to reach. Economic and Social Development Department. Available at: (accessed 18 May, 2013).

FAO (2010b). Progress towards millennium development goal 1: Hunger Target. Available at: (accessed 18 May, 2013).

FAO (2013). Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations. Available at: (accessed 05 February 2013).

FAO (2013b). The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2013. Available at: (accessed 31 March 2014).

Farooq, M.M., Kobayashi, N.N., Wahid, A.A., Ito, O.O., & Basra, S. A. (2009). Strategies for producing more rice with less water. Advances in Agronomy. 101, 351-388.

Funk, C.C., & Brown, M. E. (2009). Declining global per capita agricultural production and warming oceans threaten food security. Food Security. 1, 271–289.

Gill, T. (1997). Key issues in the prevention of obesity. Br Med Bull. 53(2), 359–388.

Godfray, H. C.J., Beddington, J.R., Crute, I.R., Haddad, L., Lawrence, D., Muir, J.F., Pretty, J., Robinson, S., Thomas, S.M., & Toulmin, C. (2010). Food security: the challenge of feeding 9 billion people. Science. 327(5967), 812-818.

Keatinge, J. D. H., Yang, R. -., Hughes, J., Easdown, W. J., & Holmer, R. (2011). The importance of vegetables in ensuring both food and nutritional security in attainment of the millennium development goals. Food Security, 3(4), 491-501.

Lamb, R. L. (2000). Food crops, exports, and the short-run policy response of agriculture in Africa. Agr Econ. 22(3), 271–298.

Marshall, A., Cowan, S., Edwards, S., Griffiths, I., Howarth, C., Langdon, T., & White, E. (2013). Crops that feed the world 9.oats- a cereal crop for human and livestock feed with industrial applications. Food Security, 5(1), 13-33.

Miewald, C., Holben, D., & Hall, P. (2012). Role of a food box program in fruit and vegetable consumption and food security. Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice And Research: A Publication Of Dietitians Of Canada = Revue Canadienne De La Pratique Et De La Recherche En Diététique: Une Publication Des Diététistes Du Canada, 73(2), 59-65.

Möller, G., & Klein, F. (2010). Dietary Fiber, Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Health, Nova Science Publishers, New York.

Moore, C.S., Lindroos, A.K., Kreutzer, M., Larsen, T.M., Astrup, A., Van Baak, M.A., Handjieva-Darlenska, T., Hlavaty, P., Kafatos, A., Kohl, A., Martinez, J.A., Monsheimer, S., & Jebb, S. A. (2010). Dietary strategy to manipulate ad libitum macronutrient intake, and glycaemic index, across eight European countries in the Diogenes Study. Obesity Reviews. 11, 67–75.

Mozaffarian, D., & Rimm, E. B. (2006). Fish intake, contaminants, and human health -evaluating the risks and the benefits. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 296, 1885–1899.

Mwaseba, D.L., Kaarhus, R., Johnsen, F.H., Mattee, A.Z., & Mvena, Z.S. K. (2007). Rice for food and income: Assessing the impact of rice research on food security in the Kyela and Kilombero districts of Tanzania. Outlook on Agriculture. 36(4), 231-236.

Nederkoorn, C., Smulders, F.T.Y., Havermans, R.C., Roefs, A., & Jansen, A. (2006). Impulsivity in obese women. Appetite. 47(2), 253–256.

Patel, P.S., Sharp, S.J., Luben, R.N., Khaw, K., Bingham, S.A., Wareham, N.J., & Forouhi, N. G. (2009). Association Between Type of Dietary Fish and Seafood Intake and the Risk of Incident Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 32(10), 1857-1863. doi:10.2337/dc09-0116

Patel, R. (2008). Stuffed and Starved: The Hidden Battle for the World Food System. Melville House.

Popkin, B.M. (2006). Global nutrition dynamics: the world is shifting rapidly toward a diet linked with noncommunicable diseases. Am J ClinNutr.84, 289–98.

Popkin, B.M. (2009). Global Changes in Diet and Activity Patterns as Drivers of the Nutrition Transition. IN: S. C Kalhan, A. M. Prentice, & C. S. Yajnik (Eds.), Emerging Societies – Coexistence of Childhood Malnutrition and Obesity. Nestlé Nutr Inst Workshop Ser Pediatr Program. 63, pp. 1–14.

Porasuphatana, S.S., Chavasit, V.V., Vasinrapee, S.S., Suthutvoravut, U.U., & Hurrell, R. F. (2008). Production and Shelf Stability of Multiple-Fortified Quick-Cooking Rice as a Complementary Food. Journal of Food Science.73(7), S359-S366. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2008.00860.x

Ribas, D.L.B., Philippi, S.T., Tanaka, A.C., & Zorzatto, J.R. (1999). Saúde e estado nutricional infantil de uma população da região centro-oeste do Brasil. Rev Saúde Pública. 33(4), 358-365.

Schenker, S.S. (2012). An overview of the role of rice in the UK diet. Nutrition Bulletin. 37(4), 309-323. doi:10.1111/j.1467-3010.2012.02002.x

Schmidhuber, J., & Tubiello, F. N. (2007). Global food security under climate change. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 104, 19703–19708.

Sen, A. (1981). Poverty and famines: an essay on entitlement and deprivation. Clarendon Press/Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Shams, N. (2007). Contribution of Rice Field Ecosytems to Food Security Strategies in Northwest Cambodia. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture. 29(4), 109-133. doi:10.1300/J064v29n0409

Sioen, I., Matthys, C., De Backer, G., Van Camp, J., & De Henauw, S. (2007). Importance of seafood as nutrient source in the diet of Belgian adolescents. J. Hum. Nutr. Diet. 20, 580–589.

Stein, A.D., Thompson, A.M., & Waters, A. (2005). Childhood growth and chronic disease: evidence from countries undergoing the nutrition transition. Matern Child Nutr. 1(3), 177–184.

Stuckler, D., McKee, M., Ebrahim, S., & Basu, S. (2012). Manufacturing Epidemics: The Role of Global Producers in Increased Consumption of Unhealthy Commodities Including Processed Foods, Alcohol, and Tobacco. PLoS Med. 9(6), e1001235. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001235

Swinburn, B., Egger, G., & Raza, F. (1999). Dissecting obesogenic environments: The development and application of a framework for identifying and prioritizing environmental interventions for obesity. Preventive Medicine. 29(6), 563-570.

Sy M.M., Feinberg M., Verger P., Barré T., Clémençon S. & Crépet A. New approach for the assessment of cluster diets. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 52 (2013), 180–187.

UNICEF (2006a). Under five deaths by cause. Available at: (accessed 15 May, 2013).

UNICEF (2006b). Progress for Children: A Report Card on Nutrition (No. 4). Available at: (accessed 15 May, 2013).

UNICEF (2007). The State of the World's Children 2007: Women and Children - The double dividend of gender equality. Available at: (accessed 11 May, 2013).

UNSD (2013). Millennium Development Goals Indicators. Department of public information. Goal 1: eradicate extreme poverty and hunger. Available at: (accessed 22 May, 2013).

U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2010). Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 (7th ed.). Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Wahlqvist, M. L., McKay, J., Chang, Y. -., & Chiu, Y. -. (2012). Rethinking the food security debate in Asia: Some missing ecological and health dimensions and solutions. Food Security, 4(4), 657-670.

Webb, P., Coates, J., Frongillo, E.A., Rogers, B.L., Swindale, A., & Bilinsky, P. (2006). Measuring household food insecurity: Why it's so important and yet so difficult to do. Journal of Nutrition. 136 (5), 1404S-1408S.

Weinsier, R.L., Hunter, G.R., Heine, A.F., Goran, M.I., & Sell, S.M. (1998). The etiology of obesity: Relative contribution of metabolic factors, diet, and physical activity. American Journal of Medicine. 105(2), 145–150.

WHO (2013). World Health Organization Database. Available at: (accessed 01 February, 2013).

WHO (2014). Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS)/Food Cluster Diets. Available at: (accessed 30 March, 2014).

Wolfenden, L., Wyse, R., Britton, B., Campbell, K., Hodder, R., Stacey, F., McElduff, P., & James, E. (2012). Interventions for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in children aged 5 years and under. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Online). 11CD008552. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD008552.pub2

World Bank (2013). The World Bank Database. Available at: (accessed 22 May, 2013).

Return to