Your search returned over 400 essays for "proteins"
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For Proteins, Form Shapes Function

- Proteins are fundamental components of all living cells that participate in some of the most important biological processes, including cell growth and maintenance, movement and defense. They are complex molecules that consist of one or more chains of amino-acids, have distinct three-dimensional shapes and whose structure and structural dynamics directly influence their specific function. Most proteins have a primary, secondary and tertiary structure, but some of them, like hemoglobin, also have a quaternary structure....   [tags: Proteins, Structures, Functions]

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Dna Of Proteins : The Fish Muscle

- Analysis of proteins found in varying fish muscle Introduction Gel electrophoresis involves separation and analysis of macromolecules like deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), and various proteins. In electrophoresis an electric current is passed through a solution or gel from one electrode to the other. Ions, molecules, and molecular fragments in the solution or gel are drawn to one of the electrodes according to their charge. When charged molecules are placed in a gel, the speed they travel toward the electrode is influenced by both their charge and size....   [tags: Protein, Molecular biology, Western blot]

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Macromolecules And Structure Of Proteins

- Proteins are considered to be the most versatile macromolecules in a living system. This is because they serve crucial functions in all biological processes. Proteins are linear polymers, and they are made up of monomer units that are called amino acids. The sequence of the amino acids linked together is referred to as the primary structure. A protein will spontaneously fold up into a 3D shape caused by the hydrogen bonding of amino acids near each other. This 3D structure is determined by the sequence of the amino acids....   [tags: Amino acid, Protein, Secondary structure]

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Hierarchical Structure of Proteins

- Hierarchical Structure of Proteins Molecular Cell Biology. 4th edition, Dec 18th, U.S. National Library of Medicine, This article intends to educate the reader on how exactly proteins function and their structure and how the various components of proteins work together to create one cohesive unit. This passage focuses on the spatial arrangement of proteins emphasizing its importance as key to understanding how exactly proteins work. In summary, this excerpt went over how proteins are a linear polymer of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds....   [tags: function, structure, cohesive, protein]

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The Structure of Proteins

- The Structure of Proteins Introduction Campbell and Farrell define proteins as polymers of amino acids that have been covalently joined through peptide bonds to form amino acid chains (61). A short amino acid chain comprising of thirty amino acids forms a peptide, and a longer chain of amino acids forms a polypeptide or a protein. Each of the amino acids making up a protein, has a fundamental design that comprises of a central carbon or alpha carbon that is bonded to a hydrogen element, an amino grouping, a carboxyl grouping, and a unique side chain or the R-group (Campbell and Farrell 61)....   [tags: Chemistry]

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Cancer Cells and the Insulin-Growth Proteins

- What if we use what our bodies already produce and use that to combat cancer. Proteins are large molecules that have multifunctional roles in our bodies. They are involved in almost all of our cell functions, like carrying and distributing oxygen throughout our bodies to creating our skin cells. They are the structure to all of our biological cells within all living things. A couple of scientists, from the Chinese University of Hong Kong, conducted several experiments manipulating and creating proteins to inhibit breast cancer cells and colon cancer cells from developing....   [tags: cancer, protein, hormone]

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Molecular Dynamics And Its Effect On The Proteins

- Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was performed to investigate the site-specific glycosylation effect on the proteins. Model peptide system was galactosylated at different sites in silico, and the conformational characteristics of each glycosylate peptide were analyzed by the MD simulations. Only double-glycosylated peptide showed a structural disruption accompanying a helical splitting, in which Ser17 was particularly weak point to begin destabilization. The MD simulation revealed molecular-level mechanism of the glycosylation effect on the peptide to understand the experimentally observed phenomenon for inhibiting amyloid formation in the model peptide....   [tags: Protein, Amino acid, Glycosylation]

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Mitochondrial Protein Of Mitochondrial Proteins

- The majority of mitochondrial proteins are encoded by the nuclear genome with only 13 polypeptides being encoded by mitochondrial genes which represent less than 1% of total mitochondrial protein. A prominent examples of mitochondrial proteins encoded by nuclear genome are FH and SDH enzyme complex which functions not only in mitochondrial energy production but also act as a tumor suppressors and mutations in both genes have been implicated in the predisposition to different type of cancer. (B. E....   [tags: Cancer, DNA, Mutation, Mitochondrion]

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The Structure Of Proteins And The Forces That Sustain Their Three Dimensional Structures

- Long essay 1 The structure of proteins, emphasising the forces that sustain their three dimensional structures. Protein is one of the basic complimentary of living organisms. Its function is highly associated with its chemical properties, which is the protein structure. Protein structures can be divided into 4 levels: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary. The basic unit of proteins is the 20 amino acids, which can be divided into 3 groups by the different characteristic of the side chain....   [tags: Amino acid, Protein, Protein structure]

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Investigating The Primary, Secondary, Tertiary And Quaternary Structure Of Proteins

- Using appropriate examples and diagrams, describe the primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure of proteins. What molecular forces hold these structures. Proteins are a fundamental macromolecule, playing an essential role in the creation of life, coded for by genes in DNA. Proteins have a wide range of functions in the body, with perhaps the most significant being their role as enzymes. It is these enzymes that are responsible for the biological catalysis of almost all essential cellular reactions that constitute basic life....   [tags: Protein, Amino acid, Protein structure]

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Trafficking Pathway And Localization Of Active Palmitoylated Enzyme Proteins

- Trafficking Pathway and Localization of Active Palmitoylated Ras Proteins Tomohiko Taguchi and his team at Institute for Molecular Bioscience found that active Ras proteins with required number of palmitoyl groups would localize in the recycling endosomes(RE). Their discovery was published in the Journal of Cell Biology in 2010. Ras proteins are enzymes that control cell growth, differentiation and death. Two motifs (needed pattern for protein folding) included in the C-terminal dynamic domain of H-,N-, and K-Ras proteins help to attach Ras isoforms to the inside leaflet of the plasma membrane(PM)....   [tags: Protein, DNA, Posttranslational modification]

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Eating Proteins Like Eggs And Hot Dog

- This is a couple tips for ladies to expand their digestion system, I have taken in these throughout the years and I 've chosen to impart them to you. A standout among the most vital variables to maintain a solid life is to have a decent breakfast each morning, this furnishes your body with the vitamins and supplements you have to begin the day of right and have a more gainful day. I prescribe eating proteins like eggs and hot dog. Sharing in high-force interim preparing is an incredible method for expanding you digestion system....   [tags: Nutrition, Metabolism, Obesity, Protein]

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The Effects Of Xhs On Genes And Proteins

- xHS is caused by various intrinsic defects which can occur on genes that either code for cytoskeletal proteins or transmembrane proteins. For cytoskeletal proteins, mutations can occur on the ANK1 gene coding for the protein ankyrin, SPTAI gene for α-spectrins, SPTB for β-spectrin and EPB42 for protein 4.2. Mutations affecting transmembrane proteins can occur on the SLC4A1 gene coding for band 3[1] (Table 1, Figure 1). Protein mutations disrupt the vertical interactions between transmembrane protein and the underlying protein cytoskeleton, causing disconnections in the lipid bilayer and underlying cytoskeleton....   [tags: Red blood cell, Hemoglobin, Anemia, Cell membrane]

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The Three-Dimensional Structure of Proteins

- The Three-Dimensional Structure of Proteins The covalent structure of a protein is composed of hundreds of individual bonds. Because free rotation is possible around a good portion of these bonds, there are a very high number of possible conformations the protein can assume. However, each protein is responsible for a particular chemical or structural function, signifying that each one has a distinctive three-dimensional configuration. By the early 1900’s, numerous proteins had been crystallized....   [tags: atoms, hydrogen bonds]

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Factors Affecting The Enzyme Of Proteins

- Enzymes are organic catalysts, made of globular proteins. They speed up the rate of biochemical reactions, without altering the products formed or being chemically altered and are not used up in a reaction. Many enzymes require the presence of an additional molecule known as a non-protein cofactor. These include metal ions such as zinc and copper. Some cofactors are small organic molecules called coenzymes. The B-group vitamins Thiamine and Riboflavin are precursors of coenzymes. Due to their protein nature, enzymes are highly sensitive and operate most effectively at their optimum temperature, pH, ion concentration, and in the absence of specific competitive and non-competitive inhibitors....   [tags: Metabolism, Enzyme, Catalysis, Chemical reaction]

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The Roles of HMGA Proteins

- ... Grasser (Regensburg University), whose research group is specialised on studying plant chromosomal proteins. Towards the goal of elucidating HMGA function, a variety of experimental approaches will be employed using as central tool Arabidopsis plants with altered levels of HMGA protein that will be analysed in comparison to wild type control plants. The available data suggest that HMGA proteins as cofactors assist the proper transcription of putative target genes (Grasser, 2003; Klosterman and Hadwiger, 2002)....   [tags: chromosomes, plants, expression]

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The Functions of Proteins

- The Functions of Proteins Introduction Protein accounts for about three-fourths of the dry matter in human tissues other than fat and bone. It is a major structural component of hair, skin, nails, connective tissues, and body organs. It is required for practically every essential function in the body. Proteins are made from the following elements; carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and often sulphur and phosphorus. Proteins cannot be stored except in eggs and seeds and they form the body's main structural elements and are found in every cell and tissue....   [tags: Papers]

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Apoplastic Proteins

- The apoplast is the outer segment of the plant cell membrane. The apoplast has a variety of functions during plant physiological and development stage. It acts as a barricade and also a connection between the atmosphere and the protoplast. The apoplast is the main location, where plants express proteins. These proteins each of them have various roles that have physiological importance in the apoplast and overall fundamental impact in plant cell function. The primary objective of this paper is to establish the principle functions of apoplastic proteins in higher plants which include slowing ice formation and increasing survival at freezing temperatures, cell expansion, and their response to...   [tags: Biology ]

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The Nature of Proteins

- The Nature of Proteins Proteins consist of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and also nitrogen. Proteins are macromolecules. They are constructed from one or more unbranched chains of amino acids; that is, they are polymers ( Compound whose molecule consists of many repeated units linked together). A typical protein contains 200-300 amino acids but some are much smaller (the smallest are often called peptides) and some much larger. Amino Acids Amino acids are the building blocks (monomers) of proteins....   [tags: Papers]

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What are Proteins and What do They Do?

- ... “In many proteins, the polypeptide chain is bent at specific sites and the folded back and forth, resulting in the tertiary structure of the protein” (Sadava, 2011, p. 46). Lastly proteins also have a quaternary structure. “The quaternary structure of a protein consists of subunits” (Sadava, 2011, p. 47). “The protein’s quaternary structure results from the ways in which these subunits bind together and interact” (Sadava, 2011, p. 47). In this lab students will analyze unknown proteins, along with their size, and subunits....   [tags: complex molecules, dna, genetics]

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Iron Sulfur Proteins : Iron Dioxide

- Iron Sulfur Proteins Iron-sulfur proteins, like the name suggests are a protein with a metal center of iron bound to a number of sulfur atoms. Because of the metal center of iron’s ability to have a number of different oxidation states, the iron and sulfur are able to arrange themselves in many different clusters. As a result there are various applications for iron-sulfur proteins. The most prominent is the usage of iron-sulfur proteins in oxidation-reduction reactions, especially in metabolic reactions....   [tags: DNA, Gene, Redox, Oxygen]

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Biology: Uncoupling Proteins

- Since its’ discovery in the late 1970s, uncoupling proteins have roused excitement among cellular biologists due to its’ central role in energy dissipation. Subsequently, the uncoupling effect as well as the physiological role of the first uncoupling protein, UCP1, is well established when researchers at the time, were devoting their focus on the thermogenic capacity of brown adipose tissue or BAT. They were looking specifically at mitochondria in this tissue to define fat storage mechanisms in response to dietary restriction and temperature [1]....   [tags: energy dissipation, scientists]

Research Papers
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Finding Organic Compounds Like Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins And Nucleic Acid

- To uncover organic compounds like carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acid, by using tests like Benedict, Lugol, Biuret and Beta Carotene. Each test was used to determine the presents of different organic molecules in substances. The substances that were tested for in each unknown sample were sugars, starches, fats, and oils. Moreover, carbohydrates are divided into two categories, simple and complex sugars. Additionally, for nonreducing sugars, according to Stanley R. Benedict, the bond is broken only by high heat to make make the molecules have a free aldehydes (Benedict)....   [tags: Carbohydrate, Glucose, Nutrition, Protein]

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Using Sodium Dependent Transport Proteins

- Food such as invertebrates, small vertebrates, seeds, grasses, and other plant material is first mechanically digested in the mouth by mastication into smaller pieces. However, chemical digestion occurs in the mouth, stomach, and small intestine, and is used to digest and absorb the major food groups; carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. The amino acids and peptides produced after protein digestion from pepsinogen and the various proteases from the pancreas are absorbed fairly easily. Using sodium dependent transport proteins (both the amino acid and the sodium are moved into the cytoplasm) to cross the intestinal lumen membrane, the amino acids then use normal transport proteins to cross th...   [tags: Digestion, Metabolism, Nutrition, Liver]

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An Experiment Of Purify One Of The Largest Populations Of Antibodies And Soluble Proteins

- DISCUSSION The goal for the present experiment was to purify one of the largest populations of antibodies and soluble proteins, Immunoglobin G (IgG) from rabbit serum. In addition, IgG was purified through Binding affinity chromatography. Due to proteins A and G having a high affinity for IgG a mixture of protein A and G was added to the column as it selectively binds to IgG while a mild buffer was used to wash away unbound protein molecules. Dilutions of bovine serum albumin (BSA) of known concentrations were produced....   [tags: Protein, Molecular biology, SDS-PAGE]

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Food Proteins: Protein Isolation and Thermal Stability

- Introduction Foods are complex systems composed of different components, among which proteins play important roles in the structure, texture, and stability of many foods (Hemar and others 2001). Protein isolates and their concentrated products are commonly and widely used in the food industry for both their added functionality and their nutritive contributions. The functionality of ingredients is important in preparation, processing, storage, quality and sensory attributes of foods (Culbertson 2007)....   [tags: Nutrition ]

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Proteins in Nutrition

- Proteins in Nutrition Proteins are very large molecules made of amino acids, of which there are twenty. Eight of these amino acids are "essential," meaning that they cannot be synthesized in the body even though they are necessary for life. Essential amino acids must be consumed from sources outside the body. Early in the twentieth century, studies of rats revealed that this rodent grows better using animal sources of protein. Knowing nothing of humans, which are harder to study because they live so much longer, grow to adulthood so much slower, and metabolize food so much slower, nutritional scientists applied what they had learned about rats to humans....   [tags: Health Nutrition Pyramid Diet]

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G-protein-linked Receptors in Cell Membranes

- G-protein-linked receptors are protein receptors, located in the plasma membrane of a cell, that work with G-proteins to activate a cell-signaling pathway. These receptors are structured similarly in most organisms, with seven α helices and specific loops for binding sites for signal molecules and G-proteins. When a signal molecule from the extracellular fluid attaches to the signal-binding site it activates the G-protein-linked receptor by changing its shape. When this happens, the G-protein, loosely attached to the cytoplasmic side of the cellular membrane, attaches to its binding side on the receptor protein....   [tags: Enzyme, Proteins, Cellular Response]

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An Account of Proteins and Their Structure

- An Account of Proteins and Their Structure It is difficult to describe in a simple sentence the role of proteins. Let's say: When there is something to do, it is a protein that does it. Some examples of proteins * Antibodies: they recognize molecules of invading organisms. * Receptors: part of the cell membrane, they recognize other proteins, or chemicals, and inform the cell. * Enzymes: assemble or digest. The role (or function) of a protein depends on its shape, and chemical formula....   [tags: Papers]

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The Functions of Proteins in Plants and Animals

- The Functions of Proteins in Plants and Animals Proteins are polymers of monomers called amino acids. Amino acids contain hydrogen, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen. When amino acids are linked together, they form polypeptide chains and bonded together by peptide bonds. There are different structures of polypeptides primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary. The primary structure is a straight chain of polypeptides. Secondary structure is the polypeptide chain coiling to form an α helix or the polypeptide chain linking together to form a β pleated strand....   [tags: Papers]

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- Proteins Proteins are the macromolecules of life. Discovered in 1838, proteins are recognized as a large number of superior organic compounds that make up living organisms and are essential to their functioning. The term protein comes from the Greek word “proteies” or “primary”. Proteins have many different properties and function in a variety of ways. They can function as a building material, in teeth, bones and muscles, and they can serve as enzymes, hormones, and neurotransmitters. Its functions are the most diverse of any family....   [tags: science]

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Protein Thermal Stability

- Proteins are a series of connected amino acids, and in food products, proteins provide both nutritional and functional properties that contribute to the quality of a food system (Christen and Smith 2000). Protein in the diet is essential to the maintenance of life and health. Proteins are compounds with a function that do work in the body such as facilitate reactions; however, proteins are also functional in food systems. Proteins are used for a variety of reasons such as: to create an emulsion, join pieces of meat together, form a skin on the surface of a product, and form a stable foam matrix....   [tags: Scientific Research, Soy Proteins]

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Why are most Enzymes made of Proteins and not other Macromolecules?

- Enzymes are biological catalysts that increase the rate of chemical reactions within the cells without any change at the end (Palmer, 1991). In the absence of enzymes, most biological process might not occur. The purpose of an enzyme is to allow the cell carry out its functions in time. As the structure of most biological molecules play a major role in their function, the three dimensional structure of an enzyme is responsible for its catalytic activities. Therefore, enzymes are proteins made of amino acids....   [tags: Biology]

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How Therapeutic Proteins Can Now Be Mass Produced?

- Therapeutic proteins can now be mass-produced because of advances in genetic engineering techniques. Before these advances in genetic engineering, preparing proteins required a long process of collecting and processing vast amounts of tissue and other biological products. Types of therapeutic proteins include insulin, human growth hormone and fertility enhancing drugs used to boost egg production. Bacteria, yeast, and cultured mammalian cells are used to produce a variety of therapeutic proteins....   [tags: DNA, Bacteria, Gene, Molecular biology]

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How Therapeutic Proteins Can Now Be Mass Produced?

- Section1 Therapeutic proteins can now be mass-produced because of advances in genetic engineering techniques. Before these advances in genetic engineering, preparing proteins required a long process of collecting and processing vast amounts of tissue and other biological products. Types of therapeutic proteins include insulin, human growth hormone and fertility enhancing drugs used to boost egg production. Bacteria, yeast, and cultured mammalian cells are used to produce a variety of therapeutic proteins....   [tags: DNA, Gene, Molecular biology, Bacteria]

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Influence of a Micro RNA on Complex-Forming Proteins

- Effect of miRNA on complex-forming proteins We studied the global correlation between protein complex association number and the number of miRNA target-site types at the 3′ UTRs of the gene encoding the protein. Interestingly, we have noticed a significant negative correlation between them (ρnumber of miRNA hits vs. protein complex association number = -0.102, P = 2.0×10-2, N = 513 [TargetScan]; ρnumber of miRNA hits vs. protein complex number = -0.191, P = 3.8×10-2, N = 118 [miRWalk]) (Supplementary Fig....   [tags: Correlation, Regulation, Genes]

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Protein Thermal Stability

- Proteins are amazing chemical polymers. They serve a myriad of functions such as providing nutrition in the form of their constitutive amino acids as well as energy. They serve as reactants and enzymes in chemical reactions. Proteins contribute to the texture, viscosity and water holding capacity of foods that contain them. Proteins can be toxins or allergens or hormones, and they serve as transporters for vital molecules such as oxygen in the blood stream (Coultate 1984). These polymers have evolved to play a role in very specific physiological functions and this chemical reactivity can be used for very unique applications beyond a proteins evolutionary scope....   [tags: Scientific Research, Soy Proteins]

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Notch Proteins and Kaposi's Sarcoma

- The notch protein is part of the greater picture, the notch signaling pathway. The actual protein serves as a trigger straddling the inside and outside of the cell membrane. When certain proteins bind to the exterior of the notch, the interior releases other proteins which make their way to the cell nucleus to alter gene expression. Some responsibilities delegated to the notch include but are not limited to cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and apoptosis. Notch proteins are not an universal brand of amino acids, rather they are only found in Metazoans, or animals....   [tags: Biology]

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Production of anti-apoptotic Proteins by cancer cells

- Apoptosis is a form of cell death which is an essential process for growth and development of multi cellular organism and removes damaged cells to prevent inflammation (Madeo, Frohlich et al. 1997). In addition, apoptosis can be morphologically characterized by cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and formation of apoptotic complex (Madeo, Frohlich et al. 1997,Qi, Kim, et al. 2013).The main biochemical characteristics of apoptosis include caspase activation and DNA fragmentation (Madeo, Frohlich et al....   [tags: Cell Death, Multi Cellular Organism]

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Using Computational Design in Proteins

- Introduction This experiment demonstrated that proteins can successfully be manipulated to perform specific functions. This accomplishment proves to be very important and groundbreaking - especially in the area of biotechnology. The experiment that was carried out was able to turn a previously inactive protein into one with catalytic activity through the manipulation of the amino acids of a binding site. This proves important because catalytic activity can be used to speed up reactions....   [tags: Biology]

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Carbohydrates, Sugars, Lipids, Proteins, Vitamins And Minerals

- In every morsel of food are vitamins, minerals nutrients, and calories that allow our bodies to function properly. Examples of these macronutrients that need to be consumed include: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins and mineral. To begin, carbohydrates serve many functions in the body. There are many types of carbohydrates. There are simple carbs, complex carbs, refines unrefined carbs, starch and fiber. Everything that we ingest is broken down; simple carbohydrates are carbohydrates in the smallest form....   [tags: Nutrition, Vitamin, Glucose, Fat]

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How Temperature Affects the Degeneration of Proteins in Fish Food

- Aim: to find out how different temperature affects the protein levels within Fish food (flakes) stuffs. 1. Introduction 1.1. Fish food Like humans do, fish also need proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals unfortunately there are not many food which contain all the necessities2. This is tackled by feeding fish a combination of flake, frozen and fresh food. Frozen food can cause problems for fish if the food is not defrosted thoroughly as their intestinal lining is very sensitive and does not tolerate cold food very well....   [tags: fish food, science experiment]

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What´s Protein Ontology?

- Protein Ontology (PRO) is a curation that was designed as a Open Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) Discoveredry ontology for proteins. It contains information on the classification of proteins, evolutionary relationships and the multiple protein forms of a gene. These components include post-translational modifications, alternative splicing and cleavage. This paper focused on the TGF-beta signaling proteins and specifically described the usage, curation, building and dissemination of PRO. PrePRO serves as the precursor to PRO, which was manually curated....   [tags: proteins, biomedical, rna]

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Fibrous and Globular Proteins

- Fibrous and Globular Proteins Proteins are necessary for function of nearly all forms of life on this earth. They consist of one or several long chains (polypeptides) of amino acids linked in a characteristic sequence. This sequence is called the primary structure of the protein. These polypeptides may undergo coiling to for an alpha helix, or pleating to forma beta pleated sheet, the nature and extent of which is described as the secondary structure. The three-dimensional shape of the coiled or pleated polypeptides is called the tertiary structure....   [tags: Papers]

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Biology: Separation of Proteins

- Biology: Separation of Proteins Lab Report 1: Separation of Proteins Abstract/Summary: “Proteins account for more than 50% of the dry weight of most cells, and they are instrumental in almost everything organisms do” (Campbell, 1999). The significance of proteins to the continuation of our biological systems is undeniable, and a study of how to quantify proteins seems an appropriate introduction to our studies of biology. In order to study proteins we must first know how to separate then quantify the amount using basic principles of experimental design such as a standard curve....   [tags: science]

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DNA Interactions Between Proteins

- DNA: Interactions between Proteins Deoxyribonucleic Acid is a molecule that contains the genetic makeup of almost all living organisms. While Deoxyribonucleic Acid, or DNA, has been successfully mapped out, many of its interactions with certain proteins and enzymes have not been fully revealed within the atomic level. The history and mysteries of DNA continue to fascinate biologists and chemists alike. However, we must question, who was the first to discover DNA, and what scientists have done to further enhance our understanding of it....   [tags: Biology Medical DNA]

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Proteins Were Generated Disease And Functions Based Protein Network

- Identified proteins were generated disease and functions based protein network, which is defined as an immune response of cells, inflammation of renal tubule, absolute anatomical region, organ, body cavity, lung, and footpad in Raw 264.7 macrophage cells in the treatment of LPS, and statin. Putative uncharacterized protein (Hsp90aa1) was interacted with the immune response of cells, which is highly increased in LPS, and LPS-statin, but no changes in statin. Monocyte differentiation antigen (CD14), galectin-3 (LGALS3), annexin A5 (ANXA5), and osteopontin (SPP1) was interacted with inflammation of organ, lung, body cavity, and absolute anatomical region....   [tags: Immune system, Inflammation, Macrophage]

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Exploring Proteins

- Exploring Proteins Different proteins can appear very different and perform diverse functions (e.g. the water-soluble antibodies involved in the immune system and the water-insoluble keratin of hair, hooves and feathers). Despite this, each one is made up of amino acid subunits. There about 20 different amino acids that all have a similar chemical structure but behave in very different ways because they have different side groups. Hence, stringing them together in different combinations produces very different proteins....   [tags: Papers]

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G Proteins

- G Proteins Proteins play various important roles in inter-neuronal communication. Receptor sites are made up of proteins and the ion channels in the cell membranes are proteins. The link between the receptor sites and the protein channels sometimes is the guanine nucleotide-binding protein, better known as G Protein. (1) The basic structure and function of these shall be explored in the following. In order for neuron communication to occur, the post-synaptic neuron must have receptor sites for the neurotransmitters released by the pre-synaptic neuron....   [tags: Biology Essays Research Papers]

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The Structure and Role of Proteins in Cell Membranes

- The Structure and Role of Proteins in Cell Membranes Cells are the building blocks of which all living organisms are composed. There are lots of different types of cells that make up living organisms but they are all similar in structure. All cells are surrounded by a cell membrane (or plasma membrane), which controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell. Cell membranes are described as partially permeable. It is also structural and keeps the cell contents together and separate from other cells....   [tags: Papers]

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Energy from Proteins

- Researchers have developed a solar cell that converts sunlight into energy through the photosynthetics of plants. Grounded and purified spinach to harvest photosynthetic proteins. They did this because this released a necessary protein. Proteins act as cell membranes, allowing the functioning of proteins outside their natural environment. Proteins absorb light and deflect electrons in order to create an electric current. When the photosynthetic proteins are taken out of their environment, they die....   [tags: Solar cells for energy]

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Mechanism of Action of LC Domains of FET Proteins and RNA Polymerase II

- Native proteins generally function in a fully folded tertiary structure conformation in biological cells. In contrast, some native proteins have regions which are not properly structured also called as low-complexity domains (LC). For instance, RNA-binding FET family proteins, which include: Fused in sarcoma (FUS), Ewing’s sarcoma (EWS), and TATA-binding protein-associated factor (TAF15) have regions containing low complexity domains characterized by the abundance of only four amino acids; G, S, Q, &Y....   [tags: genetic biology study]

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How a Computer Algorithm can be Used to Predict The Hydrophilicity of Proteins

- Section 1 – Predicting the hydrophilicity of the protein 1. How a computer algorithm can be used to predict the characteristic. In order to predict the characteristics of a protein, computer algorithms use the following method. The databases contain scales such as hydrophobicity scales which have been derived using data obtained from experimental studies carried out on proteins. The experiments are carried out with the purpose of predicting sections that are highly hydrophobic. Apart from hydrophobicity, algorithms also use many other scales based on physical and chemical properties of amino acids....   [tags: amino acids, sequence]

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1339 words | (3.8 pages) | Preview

What I 've Learned About My Carbohydrate, Lipids And Proteins

- Being aware of what you put into your body is the main way to which someone stays healthy. I will be discussing my carbohydrate, lipids and proteins as well as comparing them to the guidelines and discussing what I’ve learned about my own personal diet and physical activity and how I can change my diet with behavior modifying strategies which could reduce my risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes. When comparing my carbohydrate intake it exceeds the recommended daily allowance of 45% to 65% of my total calories....   [tags: Nutrition, Fat, Milk, Saturated fat]

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Why the Structure and Function of Proteins is Essential to Living Organisms

- Why the Structure and Function of Proteins is Essential to Living Organisms Proteins, along with carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acid make up all life on earth, and without any one of these macromolecules, life on earth would not be able to continue. Proteins consist of amino acids joined together via peptide bonds to form polypeptides. There are 20 natural amino acids without which proteins couldn't exist. COOH | H-C-R | NH 2 Above is the general structure of an amino acid, the R represents the variable group, which varies with each amino acid, and affects the properties and behaviour of each amino acid....   [tags: Papers]

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The Effect of Altered Level of Proteins in the Body on Diseases

- The Effect of Altered Level of Proteins in the Body on Diseases Proteins are the most structurally sophisticated molecules within the body, each consisting of a unique three-dimensional shape. They make up approximately 50 % of the mass of each cell and consist of functions ranging from enzyme proteases in the stomach such as Trypsin, to hormones, which are transported in the blood such as Adrenaline....   [tags: Papers]

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The Roles of Stressed Endoplasmic Reticulum on Type II Diabetes

- The rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site of synthesis for many proteins in the cell. It also assists in the subsequent protein folding via numerous proteins housed in its lumen. However, the rough ER can be subjected to stress and protein folding may not always be completed or properly executed. ER stress leading to an accumulation of both unfolded and misfolded proteins triggers the unfolded protein response, or UPR. The UPR is a mechanism by which the ER increases its protein folding capacity and decreases its client load, thus enabling it to cope with the stress....   [tags: proteins, folding, insulin]

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Significance of Discoveries in Genetics and DNA

- Significance of Discoveries in Genetics and DNA Our understanding of genetic inheritance and the function of DNA in producing the characteristics of the individual have been developing for more almost 150 years. Consider our current state of knowledge. Link genetic characteristics to DNA structure. Explain how DNA through the process of protein synthesis is responsible for the ultimate expression of the characteristics in the organism. Describe how interference in protein synthesis can result in disruption of cellular and bodily processes....   [tags: organism, proteins, traits]

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Questions and Answers on Nutrients, Diet and Eating Disorders

- 1. Name the six basic nutrients needed by the body. What is each of their unction. What types of foods might you find them in?How to they each benefit the body. The human body requires 6 basic nutrients. These 6 are Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, water, vitamins, and minerals. Carbohydrates are split into two main groups. The simple sugars and the starches. Simple sugars contain fructose, glucose and lactose. All three sugars can be found in most fruits. The starches are found in bread, rice, some fruits, some vegetables, and potatoes....   [tags: anorexia, body, proteins]

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Keep Track of What You Eat: Dikeatray Recommended Intakes

- ... I was also surprised to see that this number was also low. In order to increase my lipids intake is I would add more foods like nuts and avocado. I did not meet 100% of my fiber intake. My fiber was under my DRI. My DRI was 25g and I consumed 22g. My fiber was a bit low in my diet. I would have liked to see my fiber intake above 25g. I also did not consume enough from each fiber-contain foods groups. Both my fruits and vegetables feel short to meet my recommended intake. I really did not consume any foods that were high in fiber....   [tags: food, macronutrients, proteins]

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Questions and Answers Related to DNA Replication and Polypeptides

- Explain the significance of DNA replication. To do this you need to make clear the relationship between DNA replication and the survival of a species. 1. DNA replication is vital in the survival of species as through replication, identical copies of genes can be made, ensuring it is able to repair itself when it is damaged (through the process of mitosis). DNA replication occurs when single-stranded chromosomes replicate in order to create double-stranded chromosomes, essential in creating daughter cells....   [tags: proteins, survival, species]

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What is Nutrition and Why Is It Important?

- What is nutrition. Why is nutrition important. Nutrition, nourishment, or aliment, is the supply of materials - food - required by organisms and cells to stay alive. In science and human medicine, nutrition is the science or practice of consuming and utilizing foods (MNT, 2014). A nutrient is a source of nourishment, an ingredient in a food, e.g. protein, carbohydrate, fat, vitamin, mineral, fiber and water. Macronutrients are nutrients we need in relatively large quantities. Micronutrients are nutrients we need in relatively small quantities (MNT, 2014)....   [tags: carbohydrates, proteins, nourishment]

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Comparing and Contrasting Subunits of Memory Storage

- The study of memory has two primary parts: the systems problem of memory and the molecular problem of memory. Along with these two parts, there are two subunits into which memory falls. Implicit memory is the motor and perceptual aspect of our memory while explicit memory is the recall of facts and events. In this lecture, the systems used for memory storage in these two subunits are explained and contrasted. Implicit memory storage differs from explicit memory storage in the way that it occurs in reflex pathways and the cerebellum of organism rather than in a hippocampus and temporal lobe....   [tags: proteins, explicit, synapses]

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Analysis of the Genetically-Based Autosomal Recessive Disease, Bartter Syndrome, and Possible Methods of Diagnosis and Treatment

- Introduction to Bartter Syndrome Bartter syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disease, which results from defective proteins in the thick ascending limb (TAL) within the loop of Henle in the kidney. The TAL is an important part of the nephron because it contributes to the ion concentration within the urine. It has impermeability to water and reabsorption abilities specific for sodium chloride [16]. Physical indicators for this syndrome can include dehydration, constipation, weakness, and fatigue [3]....   [tags: Defective Proteins, Cochlear Implants]

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Efforts to Improve the Production of Insecticidal Baculoviruses in Insect Cell Cultures

- ... albistriga NPV on commercial scale under laboratory conditions round the year. In vitro propagation in susceptible insect cell lines is the best option for commercial production of this virus. Therefore the present project is aimed to develop and screen the well characterized indigenous lepidopteran cell lines to test the susceptibility of these NPVs with an objective to optimize an industrial scale in vitro production process that would greatly enhance the efficacy of NPVs of these three polyphagous key insect pests in India as microbial insecticides....   [tags: in vivo, infection, proteins]

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Functions of Ubiquitin Specific Proteases

- ... The USP7 interaction with both ICP0 and EBNA1 may affect cellular functioning by first manipulating the particular protease. This is researched in detail by examining the physical form of USP7 and finding the domains that interact with theses viral proteins and assessing the competition between p53 and EBNA1 for these sites of contact. The cDNA of the de-ubiquinating enzyme under study (USP7) was cut using various restriction enzymes (HindIII, Ndel, XbaI), cloned, inserted into a vector, and labelled....   [tags: proteins, apoptosis, environments]

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DNA: The Continuity of Life

- Write an essay explaining the continuity of life and how it is based on heritable information in the form of DNA and its transmission from one generation to another. Life's continuity is based on the unremitting passage of inherited information that takes the form of DNA. This essay extensively examines the fundamental processes that allow for the transmission of DNA and thus life. It initially identifies how information essential for life is stored in DNA and then explains the processes of DNA replication, Mitosis and Meiosis....   [tags: rna, lipids, proteins]

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Zinc Deficiency Can Cause Damage to the Brain

- ... It can be also applied for zinc and iron in competing on absorbtion, an excesse zinc will decrease the uptake of magnesium and calsium, and conversely, high level consumption on calcium will decrease the zinc absorption. The absorbtion of zinc will depends from their solubility, approximately the absorbtion from food will around 20 – 40%) , the mechanism in absorbtion by passive diffusion and unknown membraine process, which need energy and happens throughtout small intestine. Following internalisation in the intestinal cell, and will being links with metallothionein....   [tags: minerals, proteins, biochemical pathways]

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The Role of Genetics In Alzheimer’s Disease

- Introduction: Memory plays a significant role in the everyday lives of people of all ages. It allows them to recall information and remember skills that were learned in the past. Memory also organizes past information to help people make current and future decisions. However, imagine forgetting the names of close family members or not having the ability to find your keys every time you want to leave the house. These are some of the struggles that people with Alzheimer’s disease face daily. Alzheimer’s disease was first identified by German neurologist Alois Alzheimer in 1906, and was discovered to have an overpowering effect on explicit memory loss (Gruetzner, 1988)....   [tags: Tau Proteins, Mental Skills]

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Overview of the Atkins Diet

- ... There have been many problems reported with this diet that includes heart disease, kidney failure and high cholesterol. Atkins diet includes all the attractive food and still works; as it shows its effect in weight loss, how does that happen. The reason behind it is simple; it cuts down the major intake of carbohydrates that causes our body to switch from burning carbohydrates that gives us energy to burning fats that causes to reduce weight. To understand the Atkins diet it is important to see if meets the basic characteristics of nutritious diet that includes adequacy, balance, calorie control, moderation and variety....   [tags: Weight Loss, Proteins]

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The Process of Cheese Making

- Cheese making is a confounded procedure which shifts broadly with the diverse sorts of cheeses available. The essential standard behind all natural cheese handling is the coagulation & curdling of milk with the goal that it structures into curds and whey. Rather than the coincidental souring of unrefrigerated overlooked milk, today's system support the coagulating process by the expansion of a starter culture, which is a living state of tiny organisms, commonly bacterial, that processes lactic acid....   [tags: milk, proteins, coagulation]

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Metabolic Reprogramming During Macrophage Activation

- Metabolic Reprogramming During Macrophage Activation Introduction Metabolism is the processes that occur in a living organism that are necessary to sustain life. It is the way the body gets energy and the other important molecules it needs from the food that we eat. Metabolic adaption is a key component of macrophage plasticity and polarization (Biswas, 2011). Polarized macrophages show a specific regulation of glucose metabolism. Macrophages also have the ability to alter their lipid profile. Previous studies have shown that macrophages manifest different kind of metabolic phenotypes that they can carry out tissue repair....   [tags: metabolism, proteins, changes]

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Biochemical Reactions and Enzyme Kinetics

- Enzyme Kinetics Enzymes are described as the organic catalysts, which increase the rate of reaction of a biochemical reaction. Enzymes are proteins that speed up the rate of reaction without being used up, and therefore they are reusable (Jonathan, 2012). The enzyme studied in this lab was succinate dehydrogenase. Enzyme kinetics is the study of how biological catalysts increase the reaction rate in reactions. Without the catalysts, the biological procedures necessary for organisms would not continue at a rate that could sustain life....   [tags: proteins, mitochondria, dna]

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Bacteria, Viruses and Prions

- We’ve all heard of viruses, bacteria and the diseases they can harm us with, but many of us haven’t even heard of prions and most people probably don’t know specific details about viruses or even bacteria for that matter. They’re all very interesting forms of organic matter, though. Bacteria are the only one of the three that are actually considered life forms 100%. The topic of whether or not viruses are to be considered an organism is very debatable in the world of microbiology, because they don’t actually have even a single cell, but they reproduce and have many other things in common with organisms....   [tags: proteins, health, disease]

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What is DNA Transcription?

- Transcription is a process by which a DNA segment is copied into an RNA complementary sequence which is used to be translated into proteins. Transcription involves promoters that RNA polymerase bind at, isomerization, elongation and termination. These processes are regulated by binding proteins. Many factors influence the productivity of transcription including the supercoiling of DNA. There are two types of supercoiling, positive and negative. Positive supercoiling is when the double helix, right-handed DNA is twisted tighter and begins to knot or warp....   [tags: RNA, proteins, polymerase]

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What is Molecular Biology?

- MOLECULAR BIOLOGY INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND INFORMATION Molecular biology is to characterize the structure, function and relationships between two types of macromolecules, DNA and proteins. This relatively limited definition will suffice to allow us to establish a date for the so-called "molecular revolution", or at least to establish a chronology of its most fundamental developments (Walker, 2009) .At the heart of this definition is the idea of the gene, this concept dates back to the decade of the 1860's....   [tags: macromolecules, DNA, proteins]

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1731 words | (4.9 pages) | Preview

Viruses, Bacteria, and Prions

- Viruses, bacteria, and prions are all quite different, but they all share one commonality: they can all cause disease in humans. All three are also organic, in one way or another. Despite this, only bacteria are properly alive by most definitions. Bacteria are also the most complex, followed by viruses, and then finally, prions. Bacteria As mentioned in the introduction, bacteria are the most complex organizations that will be covered in this paper. Bacteria were among the first forms of life to evolve on Earth about 3.5 million years ago....   [tags: disease, health, proteins]

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A magnesium deficient diet inhibits tumor cell proliferation by altering the activity of cell cycle regulatory proteins.

- Magnesium is a vital mineral involved with many cellular and metabolic functions. As the most abundant cation in the human body, magnesium is essential to cell proliferation, protein synthesis and energy production (Wolf, et al 2007). Among its many functions, magnesium plays a central role in the regulation of cell growth (Ruben, 1975). As such, the relationship between magnesium and the proliferation and growth of tumor cells has been the subject of numerous studies. Cellular growth, cell cycle proteins and the role of magnesium....   [tags: Mg Concentration, Neoplasticity]

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1286 words | (3.7 pages) | Preview

Testing and Evaluating the Contents of Two Known Solutions for Proteins and Lipids

- Testing and Evaluating the Contents of Two Known Solutions for Proteins and Lipids Introduction For this experiment two solutions will be provided. In one test tube it contains milk and in the other test tube it contains sunflower oil. The test for proteins and lipids will be done for each solution and then a conclusion can be deduced from these results. To test for the proteins place 2cm³ of the test solution into a test tube and then add five drops of the Biuret solution to it....   [tags: Papers]

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Reactive Oxygen Species

- The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an unavoidable consequence in aerobic organisms as by products during metabolic respiration (Han et al., 2007, Je et al., 2009). These highly reactive ROS can be considered as strong oxidants and have been shown to induce damage in all cellular macromolecules, such as lipids, proteins and DNA. Over the years dietary polyphenols have been widely studied for their biological activities including antioxidant activity (Ahn et al., 2007, Heo et al., 2009, Kang et al., 2005, Li et al., 2009)....   [tags: Biology, Lipids, Proteins, DNA]

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