Your search returned over 400 essays for "oxidation"
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An Investigation into Determining the Relationship between pH and the Oxidation of Ascorbic Acid

- An Investigation into Determining the Relationship between pH and the Oxidation of Ascorbic Acid (C6H8O6) TABLE OF CONTENTS I. Experimental Design 1. Introduction Title 3 Background 3 Research Question 4 Aim...   [tags: oxidation reduction principle, chemical reactions]

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The Preferential Oxidation Of Co ( Prox )

- 1. Introduction The preferential oxidation of CO (PROX) is a way to improve the proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) by removing traces of CO which easily poisons the anode catalyst in hydrogen rich feed gas1. The goal of the work is to study the Ir-Pd nanoalloys in the PROX reaction to improve the PEMFC. 2. Experimental Procedure and Results Some catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation of the silica-alumina (ASA, containing 40wt% silica) and -alumina with Ir(acac)3 or Pd(acac)2 and other catalysts were prepared by co-impregnations of the supports with both of both metals....   [tags: Hydrogen, Chemical reaction, Redox, Nitrogen]

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The Oxidation of Ethanol

- The Oxidation of Ethanol Ethanol is a primary alcohol and can be oxidized to either an alderhyde or a carboxylic acid. [IMAGE]CH3CH2OH + [O] CH3CHO + H2O [IMAGE]CH3CH2OH + 2[O] CH3COOH + H2O The purpose of this experiment is to oxidize ethanol and then to test the product to determine whether it has been oxidised to ethanal or oxidised to ethanoic acid. Method We added 6cm³ of water to a pear-shaped flask, then added 2cm³ of concentrated sulphuric acid, and set up the apparatus as shown below, but with a stopper in place of the dropping funnel....   [tags: Papers]

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Corrosion: The Chemical Process of Oxidation-Reduction

- Every element in the periodic table falls into one category of metals, non-metals or metalloids. Metals are the most common type and they are defined by certain chemical and physical properties. Metals can be narrowed down by looking at their chemical properties. They have positive valences, which means that they give electrons to the atoms they bond with. Giving negative electrons away makes the metals form cations. (BrainPop) As metals form cations, they are able to oxidize and this makes them prone to corroding when exposed to dampness....   [tags: rusting pipes, chemistry, periodic table]

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Protandim: A Cure for Free Radicals?

- Vitamins, antioxidants, oxidative stress, free radicals. Maybe those are terms you have never heard before. Many people do not know what all that means, including myself, until I took an interest in my own personal health a few years ago. Of course I know what vitamins and antioxidants are, but free radicals and oxidative stress, I had no clue. Once I discovered what they were I was amazed at the fact that free radicals and oxidative stress had such a tole on humans in general. Not just unhealthy people but also people who think they are in the best shape of their life's....   [tags: Breakdown, Effects, Oxidation]

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Kinetic Production of Isoborneol through the Oxidation-reduction Sequences of Borneol

- Through an oxidation-reduction reaction sequence, Borneol is converted to isoborneol. First, borneol is oxidized through a reaction with sodium hypochlorite at 400C to form camphor. When the camphor is then reduced by sodium borohydride, isoborneol is formed. The percent yeild of isoborneol collected was 56.4%, and the melting point range was found to be between 174.2-179.90C. Through analysis of the product through 1H NMR spectroscopy the percent purity is found to be 77.2% pure isoborneol. Introduction Oxidation-reduction reactions can be used to stereochemically control and produce many different organic molecules....   [tags: Chemistry]

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Antioxidant Source in Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp

- Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp is one of the second most dietary legume crops. The leaf extracts may be used a potential source of natural antioxidant that can be used as an important medicine. The possible in vitro antioxidant activity of acetone, aqueous, ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform leaf extracts of Cajanus cajan is investigated using DPPH assay, reducing power, hydroxy radical scavenging activity and phosphomolybdenum assay. Physicochemical studies of leaf extracts and anatomical investigation of leaf, petiole, and pulvinus were carried out....   [tags: extracts, leaves, oxidation]

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The AMOCO Commercial Process

- ... In purification process, the crude terephthalic acid (a solid terephthalic acid that has been undergoing centrifugation and drying) will be dissolved in hot water to reduced 4-CBA to p-toluic acid. This reduction process is through catalytic hydrogenation on palladium catalyst. Then, the purified terephthalic acid is obtained [33]. Apart AMOCO process, the other catalytic process to produce terephthalic acid by direct oxidation was widely studied to make it as a chosen and dominant choice for terephthalic acid production industry....   [tags: chemical analysis]

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The Causes and Consequences of Metabolic Inflexibility

- Metabolic flexibility is the ability to adjust and modify fuel oxidation depending on the fuel that is currently available. This capacity to adapt requires an ability to use lipid and carbohydrate fuels properly and the ability to efficiently switch between them, depending on fuel availability (Kelley et al., 2002). On the other hand, metabolic inflexibility is defined as the inability to change fuel oxidation in response to variations in macronutrient availability (Koves et al., 2008). There are opposing views among researchers on which types of diets and other nutritional factors can affect the onset of metabolic inflexibility and its results, such as insulin resistance....   [tags: Scientific Research ]

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A Study On The Source Of Catalytic Improvement Of Electrocatalyst On Semiconductor

- Recently, proficient electrocatalysts for eventual PEC applications have been intensively studied, but there is no guarantee that the best electrocatalysts will perform equally when integrated into a PEC water splitting system. The source of catalytic improvement of electrocatalyst on semiconductor is not yet fully understood. The nature of the loaded catalysts and their interaction with the semiconductor are important to further study the PEC water splitting. Recently, a number of studies have focused on potential applications of FeOOH as coåcatalysts....   [tags: Electrochemistry, Redox]

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How pH Level Affects Corrosion Rate

- The purpose of this project was to discover how the pH level affects corrosion rate. The hypothesis was if the pH level affects the corrosion rate, then the lower the pH level is quicker the corrosion rate would be. This will happen because liquids below the pH level of 7 possess stronger acidic attributes. The effect of pH level on corrosion rate was determined by depositing a copper penny in each of three plastic cups, and then three different liquids by their pH levels, were assigned to be displaced into each cup formulating a chemical reaction to be observed....   [tags: science fair, hypothesis, scientific process]

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The Problem of Water Scarcity

- Water Scarcity is harmful to human life because when water is poorly managed throughout the world, those who need water are deprived of nutrients they truly need causing them to die. This eventually affects the global population. Therefore many experts have proposed several solutions such as the LifeSaver Bottle, TrojanUVPhox treatment system, and Waste Water Recycling. The problem of water scarcity has increasingly spread throughout the world as of yet, The UN reports that within the next half- century up to 7 billion people in 60 countries which is more than the whole present population will face water scarcity (Sawin “Water Scarcity could Overwhelm the Next Generation”)...   [tags: Problem Solution Essays]

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The Effects Of Increasing Exercise Intensity On Muscle Fuel Utilization

- The Effects of Increasing Exercise Intensity on Muscle Fuel Utilization in Humans Throughout exercise history many studies have been, but not like this one. For this study they had 8 subjects test multiple things as resting, and during three continuous 30 minute stages of exercise intensities of 40%, 55%, and 75% max workload. Then when exercise started, the subjects were given continuous injections of palmitate and glucose through a calibrated pump, as well as blood samples were taken every 5 minutes for each stage of max workload....   [tags: Muscle, Exercise physiology, Glycogen, Metabolism]

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Chemical Reactions Of A Cell Voltage Generated By Redox Reactions

- Electrochemistry is a branch of chemistry which primarily focuses on the flow of electrons and the chemical reactions which occur due to the flow of those electrons. These chemical reactions are known as oxidation-reduction reactions, or simply redox reactions. Electrical energy provides the energy needed for the redox reactions to occur. Where oxidation occurs, reduction is certain to follow. Oxidation entails an increase in oxidation number, signifying a loss of electrons. Reduction entails a decrease in oxidation number, signifying a gain of electrons....   [tags: Electrochemistry, Redox, Electrochemical cell]

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Thermo-oxidative Resistance of Cross Linked Polyethylene

- 1. Introduction Thermo-oxidation is one of the most frequent and important stress that affects polymers, particularly those used as electrically insulating materials and is one of the main causes contributing to the final failure of insulators. By increasing the thermo-oxidative stability of the polymer, the life-time of the insulating system can be considerably prolonged. As an alternative to the bulk modification by additives or dispersed inorganic phases having micro or nano size, the depositions of thin films on the outer surface of the polymeric device has been proposed [1, 2] (valutare se aggiungene un altro di carattere generale)....   [tags: insulating materials, graphene, degradation]

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A Report On The And G Bands

- D- and G-bands represent sp3 (disordered graphite) and sp2 (ordered graphite) bonding, respectively. The relative crystallinity of the materials was determined from the intensity ratio (D/G) of G-band and D-band. The ID/IG ratios of Figs. 8(a), (b), and (c) are 1.423, 1.685, and 1.012, respectively. Because the ID/IG ratio of Fig. 8(c) was close to 1, the bonding ratios of sp3 and sp2 were similar. As the intensity of Fig. 8(c) was higher than those of Figs. 8(a) and (b), the crystallinity of the material in Fig....   [tags: Electrochemistry, Redox, Nitrogen, Hydrogen]

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Iron Sulfur Proteins : Iron Dioxide

- Iron Sulfur Proteins Iron-sulfur proteins, like the name suggests are a protein with a metal center of iron bound to a number of sulfur atoms. Because of the metal center of iron’s ability to have a number of different oxidation states, the iron and sulfur are able to arrange themselves in many different clusters. As a result there are various applications for iron-sulfur proteins. The most prominent is the usage of iron-sulfur proteins in oxidation-reduction reactions, especially in metabolic reactions....   [tags: DNA, Gene, Redox, Oxygen]

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Ethanol Reduces Cellular Energy Supply By Altering The Metabolism

- Ethanol reduces cellular energy supply by altering the metabolism in mitochondria. While there are two other pathways in which ethanol can be metabolized, I introduce the mitochondria because it is responsible for synthesizing the ATP needed by our cells. The oxidation reaction that occurs in response to the presence of cellular ethanol causes an increase in the production of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate (NADH) via the electron transport chain in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Metabolism of ethanol bypasses the metabolic control of the Krebs cycle dehydrogenases which regulate the amount of NADH produced by the electron transport system....   [tags: Metabolism, Cellular respiration]

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The Need to Treat Obsesity in the United States

- ... To test this, we will measure core body temperature; -oxidation and browning in adipose depots of K1-KO mice fed a high fat diet or exposed to cold stress. We will measure -oxidation and mitochondrial respiration in K1-KO adipocytes and in inducible IP6K1 knock-down adipocyte cell lines. Utilizing enzyme assays and hydrogen deuterium exchange (HDX) studies, we will determine the molecular mechanism by which IP6K1/IP7 inhibits AMPK. Furthermore, we will monitor the AMPK stimulator; 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) mediated -oxidation and insulin sensitivity in K1-KO mice....   [tags: diabetes, energy, metabolism]

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Comparing the BMR of Mice and Humans

- Summary The respiratory system is responsible in regulating gas exchange between the body and the external environment. Differences in respiration rate indirectly influence basal metabolic rate (BMR) by providing the necessary components for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) formation (Williams et al., 2011). Observation of gas exchange were measured and recorded for two mice (mus musculus) weighing 25 g and 27 g under the conditions of room temperature, cold temperature (8°C), and room temperature after fasting using a volumeter....   [tags: anatomy, respiration, ]

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Arsenic Contamination And Arsenic Pollution

- Sources, toxicity and presence of arsenic in environment Arsenic is found to be present in over 200 mineral species. The most common form of presence of Arsenic is Pyrite. It has been studied that about a third of Arsenic flux in atmosphers is due to natural causes. Another major source of Arsenic is Volcanic eruption Ground water may contain arsenic in variable quantities depending on the geological conditions of the area. In organic form, arsenic is found in the form of lipids, sugars, and salts....   [tags: Bacteria, Oxygen, Arsenic, Redox]

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The Effect Of Starch On Carbohydrates, The Main Focal Point Of Carbohydrate Metabolism And Energy Production

- Starch in carbohydrates is the major source of dietary glucose which is the main focal point of carbohydrate metabolism and energy production. The energy generation process runs through a number of different metabolic pathways of glucose oxidation and is divided into 4 main stages. Digestion Following a meal, it is the first stage of carbohydrate metabolism which breaks down food molecules into smaller chemical units that can be utilised further by various cells. Small amount of complex carbohydrates begin their digestion in the mouth where the amylase enzyme from saliva catalyses the hydrolyses of complex starch molecules and the production of smaller polysaccharide and disaccharide molecul...   [tags: Adenosine triphosphate, Metabolism, Glycolysis]

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Applied Research Technologies, Inc.: Global Innovation Challenge Case Study

- The issues in this case revolve around the launch of a mini-oxidation product which will solve global clean water issues. Their filtration unit has already experienced two failures in the launch of this product. Vyas, the business manager of this unit, is convinced that the unit can be turned around by innovativeness. He revives an abandoned oxidation technology and recommends his team to develop a small-scale oxidation system with the capacity of disinfecting waste-water in small batches. While the market analysis of the product proved promising, marketing the product was a tussle and it failed due to defects in the design and lack of interest in the market....   [tags: Case Study]

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Dry Cell and Lithium Ion Cell Battery Analysis

- Introduction When Luigi Galvani, the Italian physician, touched the exposed nerve tissue in a pair of frog legs they twitched. He unwittingly started the world down the pathway of portable electricity. We have progressed greatly since that day in the mid 18th century. With the help of many scientists we have developed many different types of cells/batteries. The battery industry is a $46 billion industry with over 100 different types of cells. As the energy density rises at a rate of 5% per year, the demand of battery is growing rapidly....   [tags: chemistry, cost, practicality, impact]

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Metabolism and Energy: Catabolism and Anabolism

- Metabolism is defined the sum of all chemical reactions which occur and are involved in sustaining life of a cell, and thus an organism. Metabolism is of two types: Catabolism: in this process molecules break down producing energy Anabolism: in this process synthesis of essential compounds needed by the cells are produced (such as DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis). Bioenergetics describes the metabolic pathways by which a cell obtains energy. Nutrition science studies the relation between the food substance and living things....   [tags: food, calories, cells, dna, rna]

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Use of White-Rot Fungi

- 2.3. BIODETOXIFICATION USING WHITE ROT FUNGUS (WRF) 2.3.1. Mycoremediation White-rot fungi are promising agents for bioremediation because of their ability to degrade or transform a large variety of aromatic pollutants that can reach soil and water, thus reducing their toxicity. The classes of pollutants include: (1) The BTEX group, an acronym that stands for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes, present in petroleum products; (2) Chlorophenols, including any derivatives of phenol where one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by chlorine atoms, which are frequently used as pesticides; (3) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which originate from the partial combustion of...   [tags: Bioremediation, Biodegration, Decolorization]

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Zero Emissions Technology

- Zero Emissions Technology Zero Emissions Technology: Current Technologies and Future Developments in Electrostatic Precipitators Abstract Zero Emissions Technology is a company located in New Durham, NH. They develop new technologies targeted at coal fired power plants. They have recently developed a new air emissions technology that will meet current and pending air pollution regulations. Their product, Electro-Catalytic Oxidation Technology, allow the combined removal of particulates in the air waste stream....   [tags: essays papers]

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A Description of Catalytic Converters

- Introduction: General Description A catalytic converter is an exhaust component used in modern automobiles to decrease the emission of toxic gasses. The average catalytic converter is capable of converting around 98% of these harmful emissions into relatively benign byproducts (UC Davis). It does this through the use of a catalyzing agent, that when combined with heat and oxygen produces a chemical reaction that is capable of converting various gasses such as carbon monoxide (CO), hydra carbons (HC), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) into less harmful carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen (N2), and water (H2O) (Wiki)....   [tags: Descriptive Essays, Informative Essay]

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Understanding The Electrolysis Process

- What is Electrolysis. Electrolysis is a chemical change brought about by the passing of an electric current through a solution or melt. It is also used to produce alkalis and elements such as chlorine and hydrogen. The process involves the addition (oxidation) or subtraction (reduction) of ions in elements. The electric current motions the ions to proceed onto the electrodes. For example, the cations (positive ions) move to the negative electrode (cathode) and the positive electrode (anode) will receive the negative ions (anions)....   [tags: Negative Ions, Chemical Energy]

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Natural and Synthetic Antioxidants

- ... Hence, the high content of polyphenol antioxidants present in a variety of plants is probably the main factor responsible for antioxidant activity of plant materials. Recently, there is an increasing interest both in the industry and in the scientific research on various plant extracts due to their strong natural antioxidants properties (Wu et al. 2009). These antioxidants compounds are pharmacology effective and have low or no side effects for use in preventive medicine and food industry (Sati et al....   [tags: agarwood leaves, substances]

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1138 words | (3.3 pages) | Preview

Metabolism and Energy

- Metabolism is defined the sum of all chemical reactions which occurs and are involved in sustaining life of a cell, and thus an organism. Metabolism is of the following two types: catabolism and anabolism. In catabolism, molecules break down producing energy During anabolism, synthesis of essential compounds needed by the cells are produced (such as DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis). Bioenergetics describes the metabolic pathways by which a cell obtains energy. Nutrition science studies the relation between food substance and living things....   [tags: Metabolism, anabolism, catabolism]

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Improvements on the Performance of a Microbial Fuel Cell for Biological Treatment of Hexavalent Chromium

- Potential oxidants for chromium are considered to be various disinfectants used for potable water treatment such as free chlorine, chloramines and hydrogen peroxide (Brandhuber et al., 2004). Nevertheless, oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) in the natural environment is not likely to occur by naturally occurring oxidants (Brandhuber et al., 2004), nor by any species of known bacteria (Schmieman et al., 1998). Given the relatively high redox potential of the Cr(VI)/ Cr(III) couple, only a few naturally occurring oxidants may oxidise Cr(III) back to Cr(VI) (Stanin, 2005)....   [tags: Biology]

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The Importance of Degradation in the Fate of Selected Organic Compounds in the Environment

- Organic substances can enter the environment by several sources and pathways. One of the pathways is introduced through waste water or rain water flow into surface water. According to Abwasserverband Braunschweig (2014), approximately 700 liters of waste water per second with annual quantity of 22 million m3 waste water, mainly from household activity, are admitted to Steinhof Waste Water Treatment Plant in Braunschweig, Germany. The waste water treatment plant carries out mechanical and biological treatment for this waste water in multiple stages of processes....   [tags: waste water, organic substances, anion exchange]

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What Did The Cuban Missile Crisis Had Never Existed?

- Do you ever wonder what would have happened if Hiroshima had never been bombed in World War II. What if the Cuban Missile Crisis had never existed. Try to imagine a world where a nuclear outbreak is was never a worry. This is what would happen if we did not have molybdenum. Molybdenum is used in many metal parts in technology, such as nuclear missiles. One component that makes this possible is that molybdenum is a refractory metal. Other refractory metals are tungsten, niobium, tantalum, and rhenium....   [tags: Heat, Thermodynamics, Heat transfer, Temperature]

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The Development of a New Spectrophotometric Method

- A new spectrophotometric method based on the oxidation reaction between iodide and iodate in the presence of carboxylic acid form of losartan potassium (LP) has been developed for the estimation of LP in pharmaceutical products. HPLC/MS method, kinetic studies and central composite design method was used for formation reactions, equilibration and determination of stability duration and experimental conditions, respectively. Developed spectrophotometric method was validated. The equilibration period was calculated as 10 minutes....   [tags: pharmaceutical, hypertension, reaction]

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Production Process of Methyl Ethyl Ketone

- Methyl ethyl ketone is one of the top 100 chemicals produced worldwide due to its high demand and versatile end use. This paper will analyze and compare the production processes of methyl ethyl ketone using patent protected methods of two of the industry’s chemical production leaders, Maruzen Petrochemical Co. and ExxonMobil Corp. The analysis of the two methyl ethyl ketone production methods will enable us to bring to light the evolution of the production process over time and the impact which these processes have on energy consumption and waste production....   [tags: patent, consumption, turnover, environment]

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Primary cell

-   Galvanic (Voltaic) cell A galvanic cell is the supply of direct current (DC) consists of two half-cells. These two half-cells are physically separated. Each half-cell consists of an electrode that is conductive metal or graphite strip in contact with an electrolyte solution. Those solutions are joined by a salt bridge containing an electrolytic solution like Potassium Nitrate (KNO3). The salt bridge completes the circuit and permits ions to travels between two half-cell. The electrode where the oxidation reaction (Loss of electrons) takes place is termed the anode....   [tags: Scientific Research ]

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Water Treatment Facilities

- Most water treatment facilities today utilize granular activated carbon (GAC) as a filter media to remove dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and other constituents from influent water. The large, adsorptive surface area that activated carbon provides allows DOCs to constantly have an area to contact and adsorb. However, as DOC collects onto the GAC, the overall surface area reduces, and blockages occur in the filter that generate head-loss and reduce the efficiency of GACs removal. At this point in the process, water treatment plants (WTP) typically send the “spent” carbon to a facility for thermal regeneration....   [tags: granular activated carbon]

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Mitochondria And Chloroplast Essay

- I. Introduction Out of all the organelles there are two that have fascinated microbiologists for the past hundred years. The first is the mitochondria, nicknamed the "powerhouse of the cell." The second is the chloroplast in plant cells that have functions similar to those of the mitochondria. What do these organelles do. What are the similarities and differences of these organelles. This essay will help you to understand these two fascinating organelles. II. Mitochondria Mitochondria are small cytoplasmic organelles....   [tags: essays research papers fc]

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Electrochemistry of Voltammetric Biosensors used for the Measurement of Blood Glucose Concentration

- Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, action, or both (American Diabetes Association, 2010). In 2011, the prevalence of Americans with diabetes was estimated to be 25.8 million or 8.3% of the population. If present trends continue, it is predicted that as many as 1 in 3 American adults with have been diagnosed with diabetes by 2050 (American Diabetes Association, 2014). In 2012, the worldwide health problem cost diagnosed patients in the United States $245 billion in 2012....   [tags: Diabetes Mellitus, Metabolic Disease]

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alladium Catalyzed Suzuki Cross-Coupling Reactions and Their Uses in Organic Synthesis

- Palladium Catalyzed Suzuki Cross-Coupling Reactions and Their Uses in Organic Synthesis Palladium catalyzed cross-coupling reactions are a useful way to create a new carbon-carbon bond in near quantitative yields and relatively moderate conditions.1,2 This makes them very useful tools in both organic and inorganic synthesis as well as materials research. The reaction itself was first discovered and researched almost simultaneously in the 1970’s by Dr. Akira Suzuki of Hokkaido University, Japan, Dr....   [tags: Sinthesis, Chemistry]

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Effectiveness of Steroidal Anit-Inflamatory Drugs in the Management of Bacterial Infections

- Que. The role of aspirin in the management of febrile illness especially in children has been controversial. Discuss why non steroidal anti- inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) may be more effective in the management of bacterial infections. (Leanne Berkahn) Ans. Febrile illness is a kind of illness that occurs with impetuous beginning of fever. It can be due to bacterias, viruses, and less possibility that it is caused by fungi and auto immune response. In lowering fever, anti- pyretics can lower down the fever, but aspirin in the management of febrile illness especially in children has been controversial....   [tags: medical prescriptions, healthcare]

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The Standardization Of Potassium Permanganate And The Titration Of Iron Salt

- In last week’s experiment, the standardization of potassium permanganate and the titration of iron salt were utilized in order to figure out the percent of iron within a redox reaction. The examination revealed that the molarity of KMnO4 is indeed .02M and the percent of iron salt in the unknown salt (Tarzan) is around 20.92%. The results were both precise and accurate in both parts of the experiment. This is because the standard deviation and percent RSD in both experiments are very low. This suggests that the numbers obtained are very close to each other which implicates the numbers are precise....   [tags: Redox, Oxidizing agent, Manganese]

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Microrganisms Functioning to Neutralize Toxic Wastes in Our Environment

- ... b) Autotrophic Leaching: The chemolithic and acidophilic bacteria help in carrying out the autotrophic leaching of metals. They function by fixing carbon-di-oxide and obtaining energy from the oxidation of ferrous ions or reduced sulphur compounds, and form Fe(III) or H2SO4 as the end products (Bosecker 1997). The microorganisms involved in this process are Thiobacillus thioxidans, Thiobacillus ferroxidans, Leptospirillum ferroxidans (Ewart and Hughes 1991). Also the production of sulphuric acid by Thiobacillus species is a form of bioremediation of sewage wastes....   [tags: pollutants, radionuclides, biotransformation, ]

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Material And Methods Of The Colony Morphology

- Materials and Methods All methods were performed following the constructed flowchart (above). Nutrient Agar To observe the colony morphology, the original unknown culture was streaked for isolation on nutrient agar using the quadrant streaking technique, inverted, and incubated at 37° C for 48 hours. This allowed for observation of the colony morphology. Separation of Gram-positive and Gram-negative The original unknown culture was streaked for isolation on Columbia CNA agar and MacConkey agar using a quadrant streak, inverted, and placed in a 37° C incubator for 48 hours....   [tags: Staining, Gram staining, Enzyme, Agar plate]

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Use Of The Glass Agent Of Glaze

- Color in Glaze Ceramics becomes most compelling through the glazes that cover the cups and pots. There are many steps and prior knowledge needed, however, to reach the final product of a glaze. Before thinking about glaze a bisque fired clay body is needed. Then we think about glaze to put on to it. Glaze is made from four specific properties. These Properties are silica, alumina, flux, and a variable. Silica is the glass agent of glaze. Silica can be used as glass by itself but would need to be heated at a temperature that can not be reached by a normal kiln....   [tags: Oxygen, Oxide, Light, Aluminium]

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The Effect Of Concentration On Cell Voltage

- Through a galvanic cell, the voltages of the different combinations of metals was obtained as well as calculated. In Table 1, lead was utilized as the reduction half of each redox reaction in the galvanic cell, while the other metals acted as the oxidation half. Given that the concentration for each metal remained constant, this table is the basis for Table 2, which depicts the relative position of the reduction reactions when compared to the lead half-reaction. The most positive values reside at the top, indicating they have a stronger oxidizing agent, versus reducing, while the more negative values are more likely to reduce....   [tags: Electrochemistry, Galvanic cell, Redox]

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Gold: An Incredible and Versatile Commodity

- Introduction The word “commodity” is a term that means “an economic good” (Britannica, 2012) which can be either a product or a service that can be traded or exchanged. Commodities vary in their type, value, benefits, and quality. Of the numerous average commodities that exist throughout the globe, commodities holding greater values also have their own ranking as being precious commodities. Such precious commodities include gold, a precious metal that had been highly valued since ancient times and known for its beauty and scarcity....   [tags: Natural Resources]

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Peroxides and their Effects on Plants

- Peroxides such as peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and H_2 O_2 are present in polluted air.Of the corresponding ozone concentrations, PAN may yield up to 5% -20% in centers of “photosmog”, for example, the Los Angeles region. The observation of the effects of PAN on plants first occurred in 1945 in the Los Angeles area as a silvery-bronze glazing on leaf crops like spinach (Spinaceaoleraceae) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). PAN, a constituent of smog, the acidic, eye-irritating haze, fills the air periodically over certain industrial regions and large cities....   [tags: chemical pollutants]

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Reduced Nickel Centers

- Reduced nickel centers are important in a number of interesting and useful transformations including catalytic cross coupling of alkyl electrophiles,145,146 evolution of dihydrogen by protonation of nickel hydrides,147 dioxygen activation,148 as well as imparting catalytic activity to several metalloenzymes.149 Our interest in nickel(I) centers derives from our longstanding interest in reductive dehalogenation reactions using transition metal complexes.31,70,76-79,122,150 Nickel-mediated dehalogenation has been observed with factor F430 (Figure 4.1), the nickel-containing prosthetic group associated with methyl-coenzyme M reductase in methanogenic organisms.22,49,151 This cofactor has been s...   [tags: Chemistry]

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Indoor Air Pollution

- THE Quality of Indoor Air has become increasingly important given that the amount of time spent indoors is more than ever before. Indoor Air has been found to be contaminated with microbials (including viruses, microscopic bacteria, fungi, etc.), harmful gases (like VOCs, radon, formaldehyde, H2S, etc.) and particulates (PMx , dust, etc.) that are responsible for “building related diseases”( US EPA, 1990; WHO 1989). Building Related Diseases also known as Sick Building Syndrome is the collective name of illnesses such as asthma, bronchitis, allergic reactions, headache, nose or throat irritation, dry cough, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, allergic rhinitis, etc....   [tags: Contamination, Microbials]

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The Clean Air Act Amendments

- The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) address 189 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) believed to be detrimental to human health and the environment and found that mercury and its compounds are one of the highest priority pollutants to investigate. The CAAA required the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to conduct a mercury emissions study, including those from electric utility steam generating units. In 1997, EPA released the Mercury Study Report to Congress which analyzed mercury emissions from power plants and investigated control technologies....   [tags: Environmental Protection Agency]

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Transformer Oil Quality/Oil Filtration

- Most substation transformer failures, excluding acts of man or nature, can often be traced to poor maintenance of the transformer or its related components. Catastrophic failure of a substation transformer can be prevented by accurately testing the condition of the oil on a yearly basis and by having a monthly visual inspection program in place. Most of the checks on a substation transformer are relatively simple: checks for oil leaks, oil level, temperature, the operation of the on-load tap-changer, etc....   [tags: Oil]

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OHM´s Law and Magnetism

- Ferro magnets, permanent magnets made from iron, copper, and cobalt, were first discovered by the ancient Greeks and Chinese, which they called lodestones and were turned into compasses by striking the “stones” against a steel tip. These compasses were then distributed to sea faring travelers such as C. Columbus and M. Polo, and around year 1600A.D. it was discovered by William Gilbert that the entire Earth harnessed a giant magnet from within by observing the compasses and how the north needle moved toward the upper axis.[11] With the advent of magnetism, the search continued to understand the mysterious force of magnetism that the objects were acted upon....   [tags: ferro magnets, iron, voltage, resistance]

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Releasing Energy through Reactions in Batteries

- Releasing Energy through Reactions in Batteries Reactions that involve a change in oxidation number are called oxidation-reduction reactions. An element is oxidized if the oxidation number has become more positive in value. The term reduction describes the opposite process, in which the oxidation number becomes more negative in value. In the same equation, for example, the hydrogen is reduced. The oxidation number has changed from +1 to 0. If everything is counted through the entire equation, oxidation and reduction are equal and balance to 0....   [tags: Papers]

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Cellular Functions

- Cellular Pathways Several principles govern metabolic pathways in the cell:           A. Complex chemical transformations in the cell do not occur in a single reaction, but in a number of small steps that are connected in a pathway.           B. Each reaction is catalyzed by a specific enzyme.           C. Metabolic pathways is catalyzed by a specific enzyme.           D. Many metabolic pathways are compartmentalized, with certain steps occurring inside an organelle.           E. Metabolic pathways in organisms are regulated by the activities of a few enzyme....   [tags: Biology Biological Essays]

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Iodide Ions and Peroxodisulphate Ions

- Investigating Rate of Reaction between Iodide ions and Peroxodisulphate ions with respect to Temperature and use of a Catalyst Introduction The aim of this experiment was to investigate the affect of the use of a catalyst and temperature on the rate of reaction while keeping all the other factors that affect the reaction rate constant. In the reaction, potassium peroxodisulphate and potassium iodide will be used to provide the peroxodisulphate ions and iodide ions respectively. The ionic formula for the reaction is as follows: S2O82- (aq) + 2I- (aq) → 2SO42- (aq) + I2 (aq) However, in order to measure the rates of reaction, sodium thiosulphate and starch are added....   [tags: temperature and Catalysts]

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Lab Report on Volumetric Determination of Iron with Potassium Permanganate

- Lab Report on Volumetric Determination of Iron with Potassium Permanganate Principle: This experiment consists of titrating the ferrous ion with permanganate ion to study the oxidation-reduction reaction. The ions react in acidic solution to give ferric ion and a reduced ionic form of manganese. All the reactants and products except permanganate ion are weakly colored, whereas permanganate is a very intensely colored ion. Then a solution of permanganate is removed as long as there is a ferrous ion present to react with it....   [tags: Papers]

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Science Research Paper

- Corrosion and rubbing alcohol vs. corrosion and hydrogen peroxide “Are brass, lead, iron, and aluminum more likely to corrode in solutions of rubbing alcohol or hydrogen peroxide?” a. Definition-corrosion, rust, oxidation Corrosion is the atmospheric oxidation of metals. Rusting is essentially a process of oxidation in which iron combines with water and oxygen to form rust. Rust is the reddish-brown crust that forms on the surface of iron. Rust, a chemical compound, is a hydrated ferric oxide Fe2O3·nH2O, where n is usually 11/2....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Mercury Emissions

- Even with the current advancements in the development of mercury control technologies, there is no single best way of controlling mercury emissions that can be applied across all electric utility plants in the US. Based on the available mercury control technologies, the cost of removal of mercury is estimated to range as high as $11,000 to $150,000 per kg ($5000 to $70,000 per pound)[17] and adding up to $0.005 per kW-h to power cost. Control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boiler flue gas is much more challenging problem due the low Mercury concentrations in utility boiler flue gas (typically 0.01 vs....   [tags: Environment, Pollution]

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Why Do Some Children have Foetal Alcohol Syndrome and Some Do Not?

- ... ADH1B*2 and ADH1B*3 are polymorphisms of ADH1B which comes from the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which is a catalyzing enzyme involved with the oxidation of ethanol. These alleles code for enzymes that cause oxidation of ethanol to occur at a much faster rate than usual. By having a faster oxidation rate alcohol will be metabolized and detoxified sooner. The alcohol consumed goes into your blood stream and is spread through the body, which could have a teratogenic effect on the foetus, until the alcohol has been completely metabolized....   [tags: pregnancy, genes, mothers]

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What are the effects of different heating techniques on different metals?

- What are the effects of different heating techniques on various metals. When metals are heated, their properties are transformed and changed in various ways. Using different heating techniques will allow one to observe numerous changes of the metal. With some heating methods, metals can produce certain changes that might not be apparent with another heating method. “Although the approach of heating the metal is very important, the type of metal matters greatly (Zaucha, 2006).” Metals respond to heat in their own unique ways, so to accurately judge which heating method affected a metal in what ways, there needs to be a variety of metals and heating techniques....   [tags: Physics]

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The Effect Of Combustion Of Coal On Human And Environment

- INTRODUCTION Electricity is important in our life for daily use like lighting on the bulb, for cooking and to run an industry process. There are many ways to generate electricity, for example are wind turbine, nuclear reactor and combustion of solid fuels such as coal and biomass. These ways of generating electricity are important for continuity consumption of electricity. But in other way, these ways give a lot of bad effects towards human and environment. For this case study, the combustion of coal in large combustion plant in order to generate electricity will be discussed....   [tags: Coal, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, Sulfuric acid]

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Mitochondria And The Cell Transport System Of The Inner Membrane

- Mitochondria are double membraned organelles found in almost all eukaryotic cells. The outer membrane defines the external shape of the mitochondrion and is composed of a phospholipid bilayer that contains integral membrane protein structures knows as porins. The porins make the membrane permeable to ions, ATP, ADP and other molecules that are around 5000 Da or less. The inner membrane is more complex and covers a much larger surface area due to folds organized in layers called cristae. The cristae are covered with a protein complex called the FoF1 complex which is instrumental in ATP synthesis....   [tags: Cellular respiration, Adenosine triphosphate]

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Entamoeba Histolytica: Biochemical Characterization of a Protein Disulfide Isomerase

- The oxidation and correct formation of disulfide bonds is an important biochemical modification of many proteins. Early observations showed that disulfide bond formation proceeds much faster in vivo than in vitro, suggesting the existence of a catalyst for protein oxidative folding in living cells [1]. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI, EC is a eukaryotic oxidoreductase that catalyzes the oxidation, reduction, and isomerization of disulfide bonds in nascent polypeptides [2]. The subcellular localization and its function suggest that PDI plays a key role in the folding of proteins delivered to the secretory pathway [3]....   [tags: Biochemistry]

Term Papers
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The Structure and Applications of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

- “We are like tenant farmers chopping down the fence around our house for fuel when we should be using nature's inexhaustible sources of energy — sun, wind and tide... I'd put my money on the sun and solar energy. What a source of power. I hope we don't have to wait until oil and coal run out before we tackle that” (Thomas Alva Edison). Currently, in our world today, there are over 1.2 billion people, about 20% of the total population, are still without access to electricity. According to the World Health Organization, those living in extreme poverty, a lack of access to energy services dramatically affects and undermines health, limits opportunities for education and development, and can red...   [tags: energy, electrodes, ]

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Glycolysis : An Essential Anaerobic Pathway For Atp Production

- 1. Glycolysis is an essential anaerobic pathway for ATP production in the body. There are various steps and processes that occur and lead to the production of various products and most importantly ATP. Let’s dive right into it and get started on the process of glycolysis. Glycolysis occurs in the cytosol of the cell and can be divided into three different phases, which include sugar activation, sugar cleavage, and lastly sugar oxidation and ATP formation. The first steps in glycolysis require ATP to get started, this can be thought of as the investment phase of glycolysis....   [tags: Cellular respiration, Adenosine triphosphate]

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An Introduction and Application of the Cyclic Voltammetry

- An introduction and application of the cyclic voltammetry Introduction When consider about the electroanalytical methods in analytical chemistry, there have a wide variety ways to think of. For example, there has a lot of voltammetry that can be considered in application such as cyclic voltammetry, square wave voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry, staircase voltammetry. All these methods are widely used in several aspects of analytical ways in modern society....   [tags: electrodes, ]

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Fossil Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emission

- Fuel cells powered by hydrogen represent the latest technology in the push to reduce fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emission. The internal combustion engine’s design limitations have been pushed to their limits and fuel economy has been maxed out. While a shift in consumer preference to smaller and more fuel efficient automobiles would decrease consumption and emissions, the economic model alone will not prompt such a change. The hydrogen fuel cell’s new technology calls for a radical change in design approaches that will test the automakers that choose to mass-produce this technology....   [tags: hydrogen, fuel cells, environment]

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The Process of Krebs Cycle in Metabolism

- Energy is needed by living organisms to perform work in their daily life. In plants, energy originates from the Sun as light energy and converted to carbohydrate, fat and protein while in human beings and animals, energy originates from the source of food through Krebs cycle. Krebs cycle is defined as “a central part of the energetic metabolism that contributes to the generation of ATP by the chemical breakdown of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. It is a series of chemical reactions catalysed by enzymes occurring in the inside of mitochondria called the matrix and which can be disposed circularly” (Nazaret, Heiske, Thurley, & Mazat, 2008, p....   [tags: turning food into energy]

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The Health Benefits of Red Wine

- A recent trend that moderate red wine consumption is beneficial to health has become widely accepted and even more focused on in the research field. The ‘French paradox’, popularized by Renaud and Lorgeril in the 1990s is responsible for this recent curiosity. It revealed that while France is traditionally one of the highest consumers of saturated fats and cholesterol, it has one of the lowest rates of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) and mortality.1 Red wine is accountable for such trends because it is consumed in the highest abundance in France, and it was first thought that the alcoholic (et...   [tags: Health ]

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The Life and Work of Chemists

- Through the years of modern science many people have come and gone making contribution to science whether it be chemistry physics or another scientific field. Some people were able to produce accomplishments in multiple fields including chemistry. Marie Curie was able to make contributions in physics and chemistry just as Nobel was an engineer and a chemist in the form of creating dynamite. Finally the man of physics Michael Faraday was able to make a contributions to chemistry that are still being used to this day....   [tags: Nobel, Marie Curie]

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Translational Activity of Elongation Factor Tu

- We examined the translational activity of EF-Tu by using the PURE system, in vitro translation system derived from E.coli that was contains all the components essential for translation (17). Purified of wild-type EF-Tu from Synechocystis that had been treated with various concentrations of H2O2 were added to the translation system, which constructed without EF-Tu, and observed the synthesis of DHFR. The results revealed that the synthesis of DHFR was significantly decreased upon the increasing of H2O2 concentration (Fig....   [tags: oligomer, oxidizing, e.coli]

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The Various Health Benefits of Resveratrol

- ... Resveratrol is also protect against hypertension ischemic heart disease, ischemic damage during myocardial infraction and brain damage following cerebral ischemia. Resveratrol is beneficial in treating or preventing diabetes by lowering abnormally high blood glucose level in diabetes. Resveratrol is also helps to reduce inflammation, and also acts in various ways to enhance the immune function of the body and reduces the destruction and poisionous plaque, Amyloid plaque to help to prevent the Alzheimer’s disease.So,this review highlights an evidence based use of Resveratrol in various disease conditions....   [tags: antioxidant, hypertension, cancer]

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Dissertation on Uranium and its Isotopes

- ... Safeguarding uranium mining, while beneficial for several nonproliferation schemes, faces many challenges. One is particular (that this research proposes to address) is the inability to detect undeclared mining, which would limit the usefulness in identifying a clandestine enrichment program. Satellite imagery and environmental sampling could possibly help in finding covert open-pit, underground, and in-situ leaching mining. Even if those methods possibly could detect those covert mining operations, however, covert uranium byproduct mining would still be a problem....   [tags: Fission, Nuclear Weapon, Mining]

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How Does Photosynthesis Affect Our Own?

- Taking all else into account, the single most important thing needed for life on earth to survive and exist is sunlight. The sun provides organisms with food, water and oxygen; all necessities in order for life to exist. Of course we cannot consume sunlight all on our own. Nor can we convert it into energy on our own. The process that makes it possible for us to benefit from sunlight is called photosynthesis. [1] Photosynthesis is chemical process in which plants capture energy from the sun, through components called chlorophyll, and use carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) to then convert the sunlight into glucose (C6H12O6)....   [tags: Photosynthesis, Adenosine triphosphate]

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The Experimental Data And Model Prediction

- All the simulations were conducted using SENKIN code [48] of CHEMKIN II program [49] with a zero-dimensional and constant volume adiabatic model. SENKIN/VTIM approach proposed by Chaos [50] was used to include the non-ideal pressure rise effect on the simulated ignition delay times. Pressure rise (dp/dt = 4.2 % ms−1) was observed experimentally and was considered in the numerical simulations. Five available mechanisms, namely Wang DME, NUI Galway Mech_56.54, JetSurF2.0, LLNL n-alkanes and NUI Galway pentane isomers were validated against our ignition delay data....   [tags: Chemical reaction, Thermodynamics, Alkane]

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Biology: The structure of Luciferase

- Proteins play a fundamental role in the existence of living organisms. They are major contributors of cell structure and mobility, hormonal interaction, information exchange, and, most importantly, regulation of essential reactions. Enzymes are proteins that activate or inhibit the conversion of a substrate to a product. Often, enzymes catalyze reactions that are crucial for biological processes, but a few regulate other aspects of life, such as communication between a species. The enzyme luciferase catalyzes the reaction that allows fireflies to communicate with each other via emission of a yellow-green to yellow-orange colored light (Nakatsu, T....   [tags: living organisms, fireflies, light]

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Energy Crisis and Environmental Pollution

- ... Among all investigated electron acceptors, oxygen (O2) is one of the most preferred electron acceptors because of its high oxidation potential, sustainability, availability, and low environmental impact i.e., lack of waste product (17). The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in an MFC’s cathode occurs usually in an electrolyte with a neutral pH (~ 7.0), which is one of the requirement of bacterial growth in any biological system i.e., an MFC’s anode. Platinum (Pt) is one of the most employed cathodic catalysts in MFC research due to its catalytic activity for oxygen reduction....   [tags: technology, microbial fuel, wate, fermentation]

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A Study On Hydrothermal Vents

- Hydrothermal vents are fractures in the bottom of the ocean from where heated water, rich in dissolved gases and metals, is released1. Unusual chemical conditions are created in these vents by the interface between oxidized seawater with O2, NO3-, Fe3+, SO42-, and CO2 and the hydrothermal effluxes containing H2, H2S, CH4, Fe2 and formate.2 At these locations, chemolithoautotrophic microbial communities are the key factor for survival of life1. In particular, unique types of symbioses between chemoautotrophic bacteria and eukaryotes occur in ecosystems surrounding deep sea hydrothermal vents....   [tags: Photosynthesis, Carbon dioxide]

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