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Dna And The Structure And Function Of Dna

- Deoxyribonucleic acid or more commonly known as DNA can be utilized to identify criminals with unbelievable precision when biological evidence exists. Not only this but, DNA can be utilized to prove suspects innocent and redeem mistakenly accused or those convicted of crimes can be let free. It is vital to understand the structure and function of DNA and how this relates to DNA investigation in forensic science. It is essential to understand the basics of deoxyribonucleic acid like the structure and function....   [tags: DNA, Gene, Genetics, RNA]

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Dn Dna And Dna

- Almost every cell in our body contains deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). DNA can be defined as “a molecule that encodes the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms…” (University of Utah, 2014). In other words, DNA is a genetic material that contains the information of how cells work. DNA can be used to identify people because everyone has different DNA sequences and varying lengths of DNA. Every human cell contains 3 billion DNA base pairs. We share about 99.9% of our DNA, but the remaining 0.1% is unique....   [tags: DNA, DNA profiling, Molecular biology]

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DNA and Enzymes

- Have you ever asked yourself the question why my eyes are this color. Or any question as to why we look the way we do. All of our features come down to our genetics. Those genetics are family traits that are passed down through our bloodlines. It all comes down to what is considered the fundamental building blocks of life, our DNA. DeoxyriboNucleic Acid is the actual name for DNA. We have all heard of DNA for years, but what do you really know about it. What is DNA made of. In this paper we will talk about this mini miracle called DNA....   [tags: DNA Essays]

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The Mutant Of T7 Dna Polymerase

- ... This DTTPαS is formed by replacing an oxygen with a sulfur group on the first phosphate of the triphosphate. It is available in S and R isomers but the researchers purchased the S isomer. The change from an oxygen to a sulfur allowed for a difference in reactivity when linking the DTTPαS to the 8-oxoG:A. The scientists used this sulfur analog because they were able to utilize the thio effects which aided them in suggesting that the extensions of all the three base pairs was limited by the rate of conformational change before the phosphodiester bond formation....   [tags: DNA, DNA replication, Nucleotide]

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A Dna Database For All Citizens

- Since their first establishment in 1995 (Wallace, n.d.), the use of DNA databases has significantly increased. Today, DNA databases are rapidly expanding, with numerous countries using these databases for clinical research and to store criminal DNA (Roman-Santos, 2011). Their potential benefits and current assistance in solving crimes has caused huge controversy, especially surrounding the idea of a universal database. Although there are many benefits, including the identification and study of diseases, as well as improvements in crime detection and prevention, there are also various ethical concerns, such as the right to privacy and the potential for misuse if poorly regulated....   [tags: DNA, National DNA database, DNA profiling]

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A Research Study On Mitochondrial Dna

- ... In particular, they recommend multiplying the FBI’s rarity statistic by the number of profiles in the database, to arrive at a figure known as the Database Match Probability. When this formula is applied to Puckett’s case (where a profile with a rarity of one in 1.1 million was run through a database of 338,000 offenders) the chances of a coincidental match climb to one in three. Coincidental matches are very similar to false positives. The Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM) defined false positive as “two DNA profiles from unrelated people that match at moderate stringency.” False positives can also happen when evidence is mislabeled during collection, misidentifi...   [tags: DNA, DNA profiling, National DNA database]

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Use of DNA in Criminal Investigations

- Before the 1980s, courts relied on testimony and eyewitness accounts as a main source of evidence. Notoriously unreliable, these techniques have since faded away to the stunning reliability of DNA forensics. In 1984, British geneticist Alec Jeffreys of the University of Leicester discovered an interesting new marker in the human genome. Most DNA information is the same in every human, but the junk code between genes is unique to every person. Junk DNA used for investigative purposes can be found in blood, saliva, perspiration, sexual fluid, skin tissue, bone marrow, dental pulp, and hair follicles (Butler, 2011)....   [tags: DNA Forensics]

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Should Dna Evidence Be Admissible?

- Should DNA Evidence be Admissible in Murder Trials. “In matters of truth and justice, there is no difference between large and small problems, for issues concerning the treatment of people are all the same”.(Albert Einstein).Many people have different points of view of what is justice of what happens in the courtroom. Opinions have been heard of whether or not DNA evidence should be admissible in murder trials. Not only have people try to introduce this kind of evidence in their case, but some have been trying to avoid of DNA evidence in their case....   [tags: DNA, National DNA database, DNA profiling, Crime]

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DNA in the Forensic Science Community

- This paper explores deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) collection and its relationship to solving crimes. The collection of DNA is one of the most important steps in identifying a suspect in a crime. DNA evidence can either convict or exonerate an individual of a crime. Furthermore, the accuracy of forensic identification of evidence has the possibility of leaving biased effects on a juror (Carrell, Krauss, Liberman, Miethe, 2008). This paper examines Carrells et al’s research along with three other research articles to review how DNA is collected, the effects that is has on a juror and the pros and cons of DNA collection in the Forensic Science and Criminal Justice community. Keywords: deoxyribo...   [tags: Biology, DNA collection, DNA Evidence]

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Dna Analysis : Forensic Science

- . DNA can be left or collected from the hair, saliva, blood, mucus, semen, urine, fecal matter, and even the bones. DNA analysis has been the most recent technique employed by the forensic science community to identify a suspect or victim since the use of fingerprinting. Moreover, since the introduction of this new technique it has been a large number of individuals released or convicted of crimes based on DNA left at the crime sceneDNA is the abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid. DNA is the genetic material found in cells of all living organisms....   [tags: DNA, DNA profiling, Alec Jeffreys]

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Dna Fingerprinting : Forensic Investigation

- DNA fingerprinting, one of the great discoveries of the late 20th century, has revolutionized forensic investigations. This reviews about 30 years of progress in DNA Fingerprinting analysis which helps to convict criminals, free the wrongly accused, and identify victims of crime, disasters, and war. Current standard methods based on short tandem repeats (STRs) are covered. Advancements and expanding forensic DNA databases are discussed and we ask what the future holds for all types of DNA fingerprinting....   [tags: DNA, DNA profiling, Alec Jeffreys]

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The Human Dna Repair Disease

- ... Likewise, mutations of the XPC, ERCC2, or HRAD30 gene have been identified in XP. HRAD30 (DNA polymerase eta gene) that enables error-free cellular replication by avoiding UV induced damage (National Rare Disorder, 2015). Nucleotide excision repair (NER) plays a key role in DNA-repair when it comes to xeroderma pigmentosum disease. The proteins produced by NER recognize damaged DNA, excise the abnormal section and replaces it with correct DNA (Genetics Home Reference, 2015). In addition, the early signs of XP is acute sunburn, photosensitivity, and persistent redness or erythema of the skin....   [tags: DNA, DNA replication, Gene, Protein]

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Bacteria strains and DNA extraction

- Materials and method Bacteria strains and DNA extraction A collection of standard bacterial strains containing E. amylovora strains and several species of bacteria confirmed by Biochemical, Carbohydrates and Virulence tests for identification of E. amylovora isolates (data not shown) were exploited to estimate the specificity test (table 1). Furthermore, in order to assess the performance of two PCR methods and LAMP assay, about 208 symptomatic plant samples, were used. This collection was obtained from various plant tissues (e.g., flowers, shoots, leaves, fruits, and limbs) belonging to apple, pear and quince cultivars of different regions of Iran, during spring and summer of 2009 and 2010....   [tags: Biology, DNA]

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Dna And The Criminal Justice Field

- DNA’s Role in Criminal Investigation Using DNA to solve crime has been one the biggest advances in the criminal justice field. DNA can be used to identify criminals with extreme accuracy. DNA is used in two ways, the first way is to compare the DNA at a crime scene to the DNA of a possible suspect and then arrest them based on the findings of the DNA analyses. The other way of using DNA is to exonerate people from a crime. FBI estimates that the chances of two people having the same DNA is 1 in 113 billion, only people with the same DNA are identical twins....   [tags: DNA, Gene, Crime, Cell]

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Dna Fingerprinting And Its Benefits

- Introduction and background information DNA fingerprinting is a technique of testing to identify and evaluate the genetic information taken from an organism. It involves the use of DNA to create a fingerprint that is unique in every organism. In case of human use it has many benefits. DNA fingerprinting can solve crimes, identify one person from another, be used for paternity testing and even, when done early, reveal a person’s risk of disease in the future. However, there are also many negatives of DNA fingerprinting....   [tags: DNA, National DNA database, Molecular biology]

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Dna And The Human Body

- Deoxyribonucleic acid, more commonly known as “DNA”, is said to be the genetic blueprint or recipe that makes all living things (MicrobeWorld). Almost every cell in the human body contains DNA and all the information needed to make the human body unique, from the way a person looks to which hand a person writes with. Since its early discovery in the late 1800’s by a scientist who many do not credit for discovering it, DNA has been used to help solve crimes and to differentiate and tell people apart....   [tags: DNA, DNA profiling, Francis Crick, Alec Jeffreys]

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The Process Of Replication And Dna

- ... After the primer is in place on a single, unwound polynucleotide strand, the DNA polymerase wraps itself around that strand, and it attaches new nucleotides to the exposed nitrogenous bases. The polymerase assembles a new DNA strand on top of the existing one. As the DNA polymerase makes its way down the unwound DNA strand, it relies on the floating nucleotides that surround the existing strand to build the new strand. The nucleotides that make up the new strand are paired with partner nucleotides in the template strand; because of their molecular structures, A and T nucleotides always pair with one another, and C and G nucleotides always pair with one another....   [tags: DNA, Protein, RNA, Gene]

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Forensic Science : The Evolution Of Dna Evidence

- Forensic Science: The Evolution of DNA Evidence Among the numerous new technological advancements that science has provided for the investigation of forensic evidence is the prevailing and contentious analysis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), the organic material that makes up the genetic code of most organisms (plants, animals, humans). Through the process of DNA analysis, crime scene investigators are able to examine the DNA found in physical evidence such as blood, saliva, sweat, hair, skin, and semen....   [tags: DNA, National DNA database, DNA profiling]

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Recombinant Dna And The Human Gene

- ... Among all the animals, pigs has a number of advantages. Pigs can give birth to a new born within four months. Pigs are able to reproduce much quicker (12 months of age) and able to produce more offspring (usually 10 to 12 piglets). And last a lactating pig can produce up to 300 liters (about 315 quarts) of milk in a year. The procedure is carried out first by obtaining the DNA fragment (gene) that codes for the desire human protein by isolation. Second, the DNA fragment that promotes production of proteins in mammary glands is isolated and linked or combined to the human gene....   [tags: DNA, Gene, Protein, Genetics]

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The Human Manipulation Of Dna

- “Will the human manipulation of DNA provide significant benefits to today’s society?” Human manipulation of DNA, also known as genetic engineering and recombinant DNA technology, is a process that involves combining DNA, and inserting the newly recombined DNA into cells to be expressed through protein synthesis. The human manipulation of DNA can be beneficial and disadvantageous. It allows genetically engineered (GE) proteins to be manufactured, aiding those with cardiac issues, and can increase genetic diversity....   [tags: DNA, Gene, Genetics, Bacteria]

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Why Cancer Is A Disease Of Dna

- Though there are many theories as to what specifically contributes to cancer, the verdict is still out on the actual root of the problem. What is the true and leading cause of cancer. Where does it stem from. It is agreed by most that, “The immediate cause of cancer must be some combination of insults and accidents that induces normal cells in a healthy human body to turn malignant, growing like weeds and sprouting in unnatural places”(57). It is also agreed in the scientific community that cancer is “a disease of DNA”, however this does not really get to the root of the problem....   [tags: Cancer, Oncology, DNA, Gene]

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Dna And The Building Block Of Life

- DNA is the building block of life; it is a series of genetic code that determines characteristics in all living things such as skin colour in humans. With the exception of identical twins, no one person has the same DNA structure, every human and animal is unique. The genes inherited by the living organisms mother and father and from their surrounding environment generate this uniqueness, which creates a unique genome; these two integral factors are the foundations of Evolution. Every living cell contains a nucleus, the organelle is comprised of chromosomes that are made up of DNA which are thread likes structures which carry genetic make up in the form of genes....   [tags: DNA, Gene, Genetics, Chromosome]

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Dna Cloning And Genetic Engineering

- ... The second objective was to create one plasmid containing the kanamycin resistance gene, the ampicillin resistance gene and the GFP gene through the use of genetically engineering and the aid of restriction enzymes. Then using the proper restriction enzyme, we identified the location of the kanamycin resistance gene on the pKan plasmid. To combine two separate DNA molecules a restriction enzyme is needed. Restriction enzymes, also called restriction endonucleases are able to cleave double stranded DNA molecules at enzyme specific sites known as restriction sites....   [tags: DNA, Molecular biology, Bacteria]

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Dna Replication And Development Of The Living Organisms

- ... C9orf72 is the protein in a human which is encoded by the gene. In the ALS cases, the modern research comes up that the pathological protein as a transitive response of the DNA binding with Mr 43 kD(TDP-43) (2). ALS is the neurological disease that causes degeneration of motor neurons, which result in progressive spasticity that condition leads to the death from the symptom of respiratory disease within three years (5).Genome stability which observes the cellular replication that low and destroys the mutagenic DNA....   [tags: DNA, DNA replication, Base pair]

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Dna And The Double Helix

- The Dna is made out of two long twisted strands called the double helix. Dna is short for deoxyribonucleic acid, which is a molecule that carries information into humans and all living organisms. The gene is a segment of Dna that is passed down from a parent to its children and confers a trait to the offspring. They determine weather you look like your mom, dad, or both of your parents. You either inherit their good genes or there not so good genes. (www.// The Dna was first observed by Swiss Biochemist Fedric Miescher in the late 1800’s....   [tags: DNA, Gene, Genetics, Bacteria]

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Dna Analysis : Forensic Science

- Biology today is used in various forms and ways, biology is all around us and in us. One of the areas in which biology is very helpful, is DNA forensics. DNA in forensic science is used to gather information and evidence for use in the court of law. DNA blood profile evidence can be collected through numerous ways like saliva, semen, blood, urine, feces, hair, teeth, bone, cells and tissue. DNA evidence can be collected from many items, examples are such as a mask, gloves, shoes, clothes, bedding, fingernails, cups, bottles, cigarettes, weapons and much more....   [tags: Organism, DNA, Bacteria, Gene]

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Dna Polymerase And Its Effect On The Body

- There has been an abundant amount of enzymes that replicate a bulk of DNA, which has been discovered in past years. Many enzymes correlate with DNA to assist them in translating, replicating and transcribing the enzymes in our body (Pierce, 2013). More specifically, an enzyme that is involved in DNA replication is DNA polymerase. One of the main functions for DNA polymerase is to allow the synthesis of damage, that the past DNA caused, which blocks replication-fork progression. DNA polymerase can cause a complication and/or mistake, which is caused by a genetic mutation that occurs before the transcription and replication process of the DNA....   [tags: DNA, Gene, Genetics, Mitochondrial DNA]

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DNA: The Doble Helix

- INTRODUCTION The essential component of life can be acknowledged and is made up of a nucleic acid known as DNA. DNA is the abbreviated form for the word deoxyribonucleic acid and it is the “carrier of genetic information” (McMurry, Ballantine, Hoeger, & Peterson, 1992, pg. 775). DNA contains the genetic instructions that are needed for an organism to develop, survive, and replicate, as it plays a crucial role in living systems that makes each species unique and distinctive. The multifaceted material is stored in every cell of every living organisms and it contains information about our nature, appearance, performance, etc....   [tags: fingerprinting, dna testing]

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Visualization Of Genomic Dna And Pcr

- RESULTS Visualization of genomic DNA and PCR fragments in electrophoresis. To isolate genomic DNA from different bacterial cultures addition of enzymes was necessary to degrade the amino acid (RNA), proteins, and denature the cell. Briefly, DNA was isolated from four different bacterial types Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1, Rhodobacter sphaeroides 17029, Rhodopseudomonas palustris BisB5, and Escherichia coli. Agorose gel electrophoresis was performed to verify the presence of genomic DNA from the four different bacterial types (Fig....   [tags: DNA, Protein, Amino acid, Gene]

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Dna For The Hiv Virus

- In order for the HIV virus to begin the process of transmission there must be a host cell for the virus to latch onto. A virus’s structure is much like a mind without a body to control. The virus typically latches to a cell like the CD4 positive lymphocyte, or T4-cell. The virus is typically spread through the immune system, hence the use of the lymphocyte as a host cell. As other cells in the body replicate constantly, this cell produces new proteins for itself that allows for continuous replication of the cell, thereby sending more to replicate throughout the immune system....   [tags: HIV, AIDS, DNA, Immune system]

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The Discovery And Discovery Of Dna

- The Discovery of DNA Deoxyribonucleic or DNA is known as the building blocks to all life on Earth, both dead or alive. The initial discovery of DNA was made by Johann F. Miescher in the 1860s. DNA is made up of four building blocks – adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T) discovered by Albrecht Kossel. Below we cover the in-depth discovery of DNA, the main scientist involved in the discovery, the importance and impact the discover of DNA had on society. The discovery & Scientists involved....   [tags: DNA, Genetics, Human, Human Genome Project]

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Considering The Properties Of Dna And Rna

- ... This permits complementary base pairing between different sections of the same RNA strand, allowing it to fold up into complex three-dimensional structures. Similarly to proteins, the three-dimensional structure of RNA is vital to determine its function (Allison, 2012). RNA is incredibly versatile and can form enzymes much like proteins. RNA can also form other non-enzymatic structures. Like proteins, RNA can have a primary, secondary and tertiary structure. A common tertiary structure motif in RNA is the pseudoknot motif....   [tags: RNA, DNA, Ribozyme, RNA world hypothesis]

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Dna Testing And Its Effect On Society

- Before the late 1800’s, DNA was never used in court cases. We did not have the equipment readily available. Then, in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s, DNA testing started to become very popular. This is when cases started getting overturned from wrongful court convictions. Which meant that the criminal that had actually committed the crime was on the loose in the community still able to do harm. In today’s generation, we still have many wrongful court convictions. Either due to their being little to no DNA evidence in the beginning of their case or the DNA evidence was tested incorrectly or possibly tampered with and that is what lead to the conviction of the wrong person....   [tags: DNA, DNA profiling, Crime, Alec Jeffreys]

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Enhancing the Power of DNA as an Investigative Tool

- DNA is a double helix molecule that contains information that is used to make up a person’s body. DNA controls every aspect of a person’s body from their eye and hair color, height, and other features. DNA’s specific and unique characteristic can be crucial when solving a crime. DNA can be used to convict a suspect or exonerate an innocent person. When DNA is found it is even more important that is handle properly to ensure proper identification and accuracy of testing. The evolution of DNA technology is vital to the process of solving crimes, however the process by which DNA is found and handle can jeopardize its powerfulness....   [tags: DNA Investigative Tool]

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Dna And Function Of Actinomycin D

- ... But what if the drug’s small size allows it to freely diffuse across a membrane of another organelle. Sheng Lo and his colleagues convey that even if the actinomycin D molecules diffuse across the membrane of another organelle, like the endoplasmic reticulum, it would have no palpable effect. This research introduced a further study that showed that actinomycin D does not interfere with mitochondrial DNA due to the lack of a specific motif only present in the nuclear DNA, known as the GpC motif (Bailey, 1993)....   [tags: DNA, Cell nucleus, Cell, Messenger RNA]

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Dna Of A Gene Can Cause Cancer

- Mutations within DNA of a gene can cause genes by oncogenes, which result from a mutation that will be an activation of proto-oncogenes, while tumor suppressor genes can also cause cancer by a mutation that knocks out a gene causing it become inactivated. Proto-oncogenes are genes that normally help cells grow but when mutations occur or you get multiple copies of the same gene and it becomes permanently turned on it can become a bad gene. These bad abnormal genes survive and proliferate instead of normally undergoing a programmed apoptosis....   [tags: Cancer, DNA, Tumor suppressor gene, DNA repair]

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The Unknown Dna Sequence # 53

- The unknown DNA sequence #53 has 1573 nucleotides with the largest open reading frame (ORF) being on frame 3. On frame 3, the start codon begins at nucleotide position 18, alongside with the stop codon at nucleotide position 486. This results in the translation of the largest ORF with 468 amino acids. The expected molecular weight of the translation product is 48.71kDa. The amino acid composition of the protein has a high percentage of alanine, valine, serine, and glycine with it being 13.9%, 10%, 9%, and 9% respectively (Figure 1)....   [tags: Amino acid, Protein, DNA, Genetic code]

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A Research Study On Dna Microarray Technology

- ... One of the most promising sources of marine invertebrates is coral. Evidence also shows that the coral reefs involved will not be harmed in the process. Potential proteins for bone repair, can be identified, evaluated, and retrieved using chromatography (Green). With as much evidence as they have now, scientists do believe that these proteins can be used to regenerate living bone for potential clinical use. Another method to obtain medically useful proteins is by pharming. This is when the production of pharmaceuticals is actually done through the life cycle of farm animals or plants....   [tags: DNA, Agriculture, Biotechnology]

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The Epigenetic Change Of Gene Activity Caused By Dna Methylation

- ... The Restriction-Modification (RM) System of bacteria arose to protect themselves from foreign DNA from viruses called bacteriophages and is the immune system equivalent in eukaryotes (Kumar and Rao 2013). This system consists of two parts, RE and DMT, that protects the bacterial DNA from cleavage. REs are classified into four types, I, II, III, and IV, based on their conserved motifs, Ado-Met binding, catalytic domain, and target recognition domain (TRD) (Wilson and Murray 1991) (Kumar and Rao 2013)....   [tags: DNA, Bacteria, DNA methylation, Gene]

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Is Junk Dna Really Just Junk?

- Is Junk DNA Really Just Junk. Home – Junk DNA In the 1950’s when the process of DNA replication, transcription, and translation was first confirmed it was discovered that a large amount of the double helix didn’t actually contribute to the formation of protein1. This ‘Junk DNA’ wasn’t didn’t undergo transcription or translation and was ‘edited out’ of the RNA chain before it left the nucleus. For the most part this DNA was thought to be useless, a genetic hangover for characteristics which modern man no longer express....   [tags: DNA, Gene, RNA, Gene expression]

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Biology: Biome and DNA Identification Process

- DNA forensics is a division of forensic science that focuses on the use of genetic material in criminal investigation to answer questions pertaining to legal situations, including criminal and civil cases. Through DNA testing, law enforcement officers are able to identify human remains or the individual responsible for a crime. DNA testing is a highly advanced scientific process that involves replicating the human DNA sequence to create a genetic map of an individual. Because of its reliability, DNA testing has become a significant factor in criminal cases....   [tags: biological diversity, forensics, dna testing]

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Why We Know Dna Is Hereditary

- ... Afterwards, they used alcohol fractionation to create fibrous strands that could be removed by wrapping them around stirring rods. Using qualitative chemical tests, they analyzed the fibrous strands and found that they were made up of carbon, hydrogen, phosphorus, and nitrogen; consistent with the makeup of DNA - therefore, the test for DNA was strongly positive (Avery et al. 1944). Using an array of animal sources such as fish, dogs, and rabbits, Avery created “deoxyribonucleodeploymerase”, an enzyme capable of breaking down DNA, today referred to as “DNAse”....   [tags: DNA, Genetics, Bacteria, Escherichia coli]

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Unraveling DNA

- Unraveling the molecular mechanism of DNA binding by Transcription-activator like effectors Sequence-specific DNA targeting of nucleases, recombinases and transcriptional activators is a powerful tool to manipulate the sequence or regulate the expression of the gene of interest. While Zinc fingers specific to DNA trinucleotides, coupled to different effector domains have been employed for targeted manipulation of the genome with considerable success, we are limited by the off-target toxicity caused by trinucleotide specific zinc fingers....   [tags: DNA, TALE, Xanthomonas]

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Human Genetic Engineering And Human Dna

- ... This procedure merely corrects the recipient’s genes but cannot be passed down to his or her offspring.” This research also produces cures, but on a singular level that poses no threat to future generations. The caveats to all this amazing scientific development are two- fold; on one hand, the ramifications of Inheritable Genetic Modification (IGM) are permanent, irreversible, and fallible; but even so, some researcher still insist the possibilities to forever eliminate a disease like HIV/AIDS, cancer and sickle-cell anemia are worth the risks it might present....   [tags: DNA, Genetics, Human genome, Gene]

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Should A National Dna Profiling Database Help Solve Cases?

- Turn to any news channel or programme and you will see the latest crimes, theft, murders and abductions among them. We live in a time where we are safe with CCTV on every street corner and technology that couldn’t have even been imagined 100 years ago… but is that enough. All too often there are stories of cases that were never solved and people that were taken and never found, like the 133 currently unsolved crimes in Australia (, 2014). Would a national DNA profiling database help solve cases like these....   [tags: DNA, National DNA database]

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DNA barcoding of two species of Coffea (Rubiaceae)

- Background of the Study Systematics and taxonomy involves identifying and resolving relationships among species. But with species today being more taxonomically complex, integrating molecular technology as an alternative tool in species identification has helped systematic s gain new perspective in evolutionary studies .Taxonomy has always been the forefront in the study of life and forever will be (Wheeler 2004). And with the increase in the development within the field of molecular biology and genetics, DNA is now used as a way in identifying species....   [tags: Taxonomy, Molecular Technology, DNA ]

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What are DNA Sequence Motifs? Why are They Important?

- ... These codes reflect the certainty of the type of nucleotide that occurs at a particular position. For example, the code [A] refers to Adenine, whereas [Y] stands for Cytosine or Thymine ( Consensus sequences are compact and suit enumerative based analysis, where a binary decision is sufficient (either a match or a mismatch). However, in some cases it is desirable to measure how well a genomic site matches a motif (it indicates the binding affinity)....   [tags: dna, genes, footprinting]

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Creative Writing Assignment about a Rape and the Importance of DNA

- Creative Writing Topic: Fred and Frank are identical twins who live in a rural village in England. A rape has occurred, and the police are asking for voluntary DNA samples to help narrow the search for the rapist. Fred is ready to volunteer for the DNA testing, when Frank asks him not to… In a small village somewhere in England Lived the two brothers Frank and Fred. Everything about them looked quite the same— Their eyes, nose, and hair on their head. Not many could distinguish Fred from Frank, As they were identical twins, The villagers, stumped, left the boys amused, Causing two identical grins....   [tags: rape, dna sampling, testing]

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Analysis : Suspect Dna Using Gel Electrophoresis

- ... 4 – Observations 4.1 – Image of Gel 4.2 – Table with Standard Fragment length (mm) Number of basepairs 23.15 23130 26.74 9416 29.89 6557 n/a 4361 n/a 2322 n/a 2027 4.3 – Graph with Semi Log Paper - Standard Separate and on semi-log paper 4.4 – Table with distance traveled Lambda/ HindIIII sizemarker Crimescene Suspect 1 Suspect 2 Suspect 3 Suspect 4 Suspect 5 Band Distance (mm) 1 23.15 36.01 40.11 41.57 35.91 40.90 40.67 2 26.74 39.33 54.16 48.43 39.41 56.40 45.62 3 29.89 60.34 58.65 55.06 59.97 56.07 4.5 – Table with BP travelled Lambda/ HindIIII sizemarker Crimescene Suspect 1 Suspect 2 Suspect 3 Suspect 4 Suspect 5 Band Base Pairs 1 23130 1909 881.2 669.2 1945 759.3...   [tags: DNA, Molecular biology, Base pair]

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Forensic Dna Testing : Why Are There Still Bumps

- ... Cotton then explained how two scientific discoveries from any years ago are of such importance for Forensic DNA testing. and what limitation and issues related to these testing. The discovery of individualization potential of hypervariable mini-satellite polymorphisms (basis human identification) in 1985 and PCR technique. It was until 1990 's that these methods became more popular in the scientific community and used more often by crime labs. Short tandem Repeats have replaced mini-satellite polymorphisms....   [tags: DNA, Forensic science, Sherlock Holmes]

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DNA, The New Crime Investigator

- DNA, The New Crime Investigator Abstract What is DNA. The scientific definition is “deoxyribonucleic acid, the biological polymer that stores the genetic information in all free living organisms. Two linear molecules entwine to form the double helix. Now that the definition has been stated, let’s now define what DNA means to a crime scene or case investigator. In the law enforcement business DNA has been introduce as a revolutionary and efficient accurate tool to solve and crack modern and cold cases....   [tags: DNA Crime Cimenology]

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DNA Interactions Between Proteins

- DNA: Interactions between Proteins Deoxyribonucleic Acid is a molecule that contains the genetic makeup of almost all living organisms. While Deoxyribonucleic Acid, or DNA, has been successfully mapped out, many of its interactions with certain proteins and enzymes have not been fully revealed within the atomic level. The history and mysteries of DNA continue to fascinate biologists and chemists alike. However, we must question, who was the first to discover DNA, and what scientists have done to further enhance our understanding of it....   [tags: Biology Medical DNA]

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In Vitro Fertilization: Ethical Problems of Mitochondrial DNA and Three Biological Parents

- In vitro fertilisation: ethical problems of mitochondrial DNA and three biological parents Mitochondria are essential for the cell energy production through the citric acid cycle. In order for the cycle to work in a best way possible, the mitochondria are equiped with their own DNA that primarily codes for proteins vital to the energy production and oxidative metabolism of the cells. Mitochondrial DNA has several differences to nuclear DNA. Unlike the ”regular” nuclear DNA, mitochondrial DNA in circular like most bacterial DNA and unlike nuclear DNA, mitochondrial DNA is more prone to possible mutations....   [tags: energy, cell, mitochondrila, dna]

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Detection Of Specific Sequences Among Dna Fragments Separated By Gel Electrophoresis

- Article One The article “Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by gel electrophoresis” (1975) by E.M. Southern focuses on the way that the fragments of DNA can be transferred from agarose based gels to cellulose nitrate filters. Then fragments themselves are hybridized to active RNA. E.M. Southern’s main influences for the investigation were the studies of Smith and Wilcox (1970), and Kelly and Smith (1970), which showed that the restrictive enzyme Haemophilus influenza was able to make breaks in DNA sequences that were double stranded....   [tags: Molecular biology, DNA]

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Dna Based Markers Throughout The World Of Molecular Plant Breeding

- ... DNA variations could be detected through the polymorphism in restriction fragment lengths (Botstein et al., 1980) that result from a long and complex protocol comprises three main steps which are digestion with (a) restriction enzyme(s), separation by agarose gel electrophoresis, and hybridization to labelled probes (Patel et al., 2015; B. Wu et al., 2013); in addition, this time-consuming, expensive and multi-step process requires radiation and some toxic reagents for visualising the results (Agarwal, Shrivastava, & Padh, 2008)....   [tags: DNA, Molecular biology, Genetics]

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Recombinant Dna Technology : Sub Cloning Of Cdna Molecule Cih

- ... The pUC19 plasmid vector contains an ampicillin resistance gene, the host containing this plasmid will survive in the presence of ampicillin allowing for the selection of transformed host bacteria. The polylinker of pUC19 is contained within a lacz’ gene allowing us to distinguish between recombinant pUC19 and non-recombinant pUC19 through a process call insertional inactivation (Green, 2015). The restriction digest was performed using restriction endonucleases Xba1, recognition sequence T^CTAG_A (xba1ref), and EcoR1, recognition sequence G^AATT_C (Ecor1 ref)....   [tags: DNA, Molecular biology, Restriction enzyme]

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DNA Sequences Occurs at Many Scales within Genomes Discussion

- Today it is widely believed that there are two fundamental ways in which genomes evolve; namely evolution by (1) duplication of pre-existing regions of DNA within the genome and (2) lateral gene transfer. (Brown, 2002), (Zhaxybayeva & Doolittle, 2011). The focus of this essay will be on DNA duplication, its occurrence, and it’s consequences in genomes at a molecular and organismal level. DNA duplication refers to the process by which a region of DNA already present in an organism’s genome is duplicated in that organism....   [tags: chromosomes, dna duplication, genome evolution]

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Homologous Recombination : An Error Free Mechanism For The Repair Of Dna Double Strand Breaks ( Dsbs )

- Homologous recombination (HR) is considered to be an error-free mechanism for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Break-induced replication (BIR) is repair process by strand invasion into a homologous duplex DNA followed by replication to the chromosome end as a result of DSBs that arise by replication fork collapse have only one free end. BIR is mutagenic and twitches in templates could occur as a result of instability of the D-loop (the initial recombination intermediate) and long single-strand DNA intermediates....   [tags: Mutation, DNA, DNA repair, Gene]

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Against Proposition 69 and the DNA Fingerprint Act

- Abstract: California’s Proposition 69 and the DNA Fingerprint Act both expand criminal DNA databases far beyond what is necessary to protect citizens and prosecute violent crime. DNA profiling techniques and databases have developed largely over the last fifteen years, and the recent expansions are only a part of an ongoing trend of ‘function creep’ that characterizes database expansion. Proposition 69 and the DNA Fingerprint Act expand DNA databases originally designed to house DNA samples from violent criminals to include samples from anyone arrested for a felony crime....   [tags: DNA Database Crime Criminals]

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DNA and DNA Profiling Made Simple

- ... It only requires keen scrutiny of the crime area to obtain these materials. Above all, the isolation of cellular material from these components provides enough DNA that helps in solving crime puzzles. In addition, the victim of a crime has extremely high chances of carrying DNA evidence. The places where DNA isolation occurs in criminal investigations include tissues, cigarettes, clothes, stamps, cups, weapons, and bite marks among other places. The collection process proceeds after the identification of the material evidence with DNA....   [tags: genetic analysis and research]

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Lab Experiment : Osmosis Dna And Clone A Gene From The Fruit Fly With The Infusion Technique

- ... Lanes four and eight had lengths of about 4000bp because the plasmid had simply been cut one time (Figure 3). These lanes show that the NcoI enzyme cuts only one time, causing the plasmid to become linearized but maintain the total length of the plasmid plus the insert which was supposed to be about 4000bp. However, the double-digest in lanes five and nine show the digestion cutting the plasmid at three restriction sites (Figure 3). The NcoRI enzyme ended up cutting the insert and the EcoRI sites ended up cutting on either side of the RTK insert for both of the white colony plasmids....   [tags: Molecular biology, Restriction enzyme, DNA]

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The Discovery of DNA

- ... According to Norah Rudin, through a series of experiments in the 1900s, it is found that DNA, similar to a fingerprint, are unique. No two DNA are alike, which makes it perfect for identification, hence the term “DNA fingerprinting” (7). Through a small amount of DNA, we are able to identify an individual through comparing with other DNAs. Criminal justice systems all around the world had benefitted from DNA fingerprinting, which had been able to prove suspects guilty with a significant percentage of accuracy....   [tags: biological identification, fingerprinting]

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Genetic Dna And Its Effects On A Patient 's Body Through A Variation Of Technique Under Gene Therapy

- Largely, the mammalian heart possesses a capacity for renewal that is insufficient for regeneration in response to injury but that might be enhanced by therapy. Moreover, it has been proved (through recombinant DNA techniques) that paracrine signaling between epicardium and myocardium regulates vascular endothelial dysfunction as well as cardiomyocyte proliferation and differentiation for cardiomyopathy. Methods: There are several molecular techniques that are effective in obtaining regenerative heart tissues....   [tags: DNA, Molecular biology, Gene expression, Stem cell]

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DNA in Forensics

- ... They must always wear gloves, mask, and use disposable instruments. This help prevents the DNA being contaminated, to where it would not be useable. The collected samples must be bagged and label in envelopes but not plastic bags. Plastic Bags retain moisture that will damage DNA, another reason why DNA must be protected and label is that direst sunlight and weather condition may damage DNA. To further help protect the collect DNA, chain-of-custody is set up to transport collected evidence to be analyzed....   [tags: works, chromosomes, cell, genetics]

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Overview of DNA

- DNA (deoxynbonucleicacid) is a sensational object. It defines what an organism is, it is what makes a human a human and not a medusa that thrives in tropical oceans. If a human's DNA were to be unraveled, it would reach 140 astronomical units and would be able to go to the moon and back more than 6000 times. Yet, every single organism- viruses are not exceptions - has some amount of DNA, however minute. DNA and genetics have bafiled people for millermia. Civilizations have peaked and plmnmeted for the many years when DNA was completely obscured from even the minimal knowledge....   [tags: Biology, Science]

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Significance of Discoveries in Genetics and DNA

- Significance of Discoveries in Genetics and DNA Our understanding of genetic inheritance and the function of DNA in producing the characteristics of the individual have been developing for more almost 150 years. Consider our current state of knowledge. Link genetic characteristics to DNA structure. Explain how DNA through the process of protein synthesis is responsible for the ultimate expression of the characteristics in the organism. Describe how interference in protein synthesis can result in disruption of cellular and bodily processes....   [tags: organism, proteins, traits]

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What is DNA? Where is it found?

- ... Article can be related through chapter 6 (DNA structure and function) in which we discuss about “DNA is the genetic blueprint for our cells. It contains the complete set of “instructions” necessary for you to exist. While it is true that everyone is unique due to his or her DNA, it is interesting to note that all DNA is composed of the same subunits. At first glance, the structure of DNA can seem complicated, but the structure becomes simplified when you consider that DNA consists of three basic subunits: deoxyribose sugars, phosphate groups, and nucleotides”....   [tags: cells, mitochondria, human body]

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The Pros and Cons of DNA Fingerprinting

- DNA fingerprinting is one of the greatest identification systems we have to-date to recognize an individual or living organism. Every living creature is genetically different in its own way, except in the rare case of twins, triples, etc. DNA is the serial number for living things, and is a combination of four nucleotides (thymine, cytosine, adenine and guanine). (Robertson, Ross, & Burgoyne, 2002) Each individual contains a unique sequence that is specific to that one organism. There are many advantages to DNA Fingerprinting ranging from early detection of hereditary diseases to convictions of criminals....   [tags: criminal identification systems]

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DNA Fingerprinting in Criminal Investigations

- ... It is analyzed by the length of DNA, which include repeating base pairs. The repeating base pairs are known as variable number tandem repeats or VNTRs. The number of repeats will affect the length of each strand of DNA. They are then compared with the sample; RFLP requires a large sample of DNA that has not been contaminated with dirt (3). Many laboratories are replacing RFLP analysis with short tandem repeat (STR) analysis (1). This method has many advantages that RFLP does not have; the biggest of these advantages is the fact that a smaller samples is needed to be able to analyze the samples....   [tags: technology, genetics and criminology]

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The Applications of DNA Typing

- DNA Typing has become more present in the world with the creation of new technology, allowing justice to be served in courtrooms, helping to identify bodies after major devastating events have occurred, and also in processes that the average human does not pay much attention to such as the production of biofuels. The process of DNA Typing is not easy considering the fact one must first go through the multi-step process of DNA extraction. Along with DNA Typing also comes the job opportunities that are available, the organizations that have been created in respect to this subject, and the average salary that is available to people who hold a job in this field of work....   [tags: forensic scientist, biological technician]

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DNA: The Basis for Sustaining Life

- ... With so many different chromosomes, there are an infinite number of variations that two parents can make-up. Also, the DNA of each person details a variety of information to include how long you are likely to live. All of the chromosomes that make up our DNA are coiled up inside the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Aside from the reproductive cells, each and every cell contains the 46 linear chromosomes. Of those 46, there are 23 pairs of chromosomes. Of those 23, 22 are similar in size, shape and even genetic content....   [tags: genetic science]

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1323 words | (3.8 pages) | Preview

The Effectiveness of DNA Profiling in Forensics

- Forensics has been greatly enhanced by technology. DNA profiling is one of the technologies that has influenced efficiency and credibility of forensic evidence. The FBI first started using DNA in one of its cases in 1988. In Europe, the United Kingdom opened a DNA database in 1955 (Milena, 2006). The main use of the DNA is to compare the evidence collected at crime scene with the suspects. In addition, it helps to establish a connection between the evidence and the criminals. The investigations have been simplified through the use of technology and DNA has been one of the most effective methods in investigations....   [tags: Forensic Evidence, Technology]

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The Collection and Retention of DNA

- Introduction DNA testing has been the center of attention in many criminal justice cases. The United States corrections centers have utilized the DNA testing process. Seventeen death row inmates have been exonerated by the use of these tests. Earl Washington was convicted of rape and murder in 1984. Although he confessed to the rape, he was also diagnosed as being mentally retarded. In October of 2000 Mr., Washington was given a DNA test and was excluded as the rapist and murderer. The Virginia Governor pardoned Mr....   [tags: Uses, Technology, Benefits, Drawbacks]

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The Discovery Of The Structure Of DNA

- James Watson and Francis Crick discovered the structure of DNA, but only by drawing on the work of many scientists who came before them. (Maddox, 2003) In 1944, Oswald T. Avery, Colin M. MacLeod, and Maclyn McCarty published “Studies on the Chemical Nature of the Substance Inducing Transformation of Pneumococcal Types”, which was the first scientific work to identify DNA as the molecule that carried genetic information, and became a breakthrough at that time. (Avery, Macleod, & McCarty, 1944) Before Avery and coworkers published their paper, there was very little interest in DNA among scientists in the field of genetics....   [tags: Genetics]

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Forensic Use of DNA Technology

- Topic: The forensic use of DNA technology. Introduction: This paper discusses the effect of forensic use of DNA technology and importance of using this technology. Due to the increasing rate of violent, The forensic use of DNA technology is essential in this search, hence, this technology enhances the search for truth by helping the police and prosecutors in the fight against crime. Through the use of DNA evidence, prosecutors are usually able to prove the defendant guilt. Some DNA evidence, such as fingerprint evidence offers prosecutors essential new tools for identifying and apprehending some of the most violent perpetrators, mostly in sexual assault cases....   [tags: crime, violence, evidence]

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Recent Uses of DNA Technology

- Recent Uses of DNA Technology DNA, Deoxyribonucleic Acid, is the basic structure for all life, it is the blueprint, the instruction manual, on how to build a living organism. DNA is made up of four nitrogen bases, adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine which are connected by sugar-phosphate bonds. Through a process called Protein Synthesis, the nitrogen bases are the code for the creation of amino acids. Essentially, DNA makes amino acids, amino acids make proteins, proteins make organisms. This process has been taking place for much longer than scientists have been able to document....   [tags: Medical Research]

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Chemistry and the Structure of DNA

- ... The backbone of the nucleic acids consists of the interaction between phosphate groups and the hydroxide groups of nucleic acids. These are held together by covalent bonds called phosphodiester bonds. The helix itself is held together by hydrogen bonds. Although hydrogen bonds are weak individually, there are so many of them within DNA that the strands are held tightly together. Without basic chemistry the structure of DNA would be a mystery. The instructions to make a protein are coded by DNA....   [tags: function, protein, products]

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Overview of the Importance of DNA

- Discoveries in DNA, cell biology, evolution, and biotechnology have been among the major achievements in biology over the past 200 years with accelerated discoveries and insight’s over the last 50 years. Consider the progress we have made in these areas of human knowledge. Present at least three of the discoveries you find to be the most important and describe their significance to society, heath, and the culture of modern life. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is a self-replicating molecule or material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent in chromosomes....   [tags: biology, evolution, biotechnology]

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Questions and Anwers on DNA and Molecules

- Question1 What are Eukaryotes. Eukaryotes are known to be the organisms which have double membrane or membrane bounded, such as the nucleus, mitochondria than in plant cell this will include chloroplast, examples of this eukaryotes are, animals, plants, fungi and protozoans. Genome is defined as entire genetic material of an individual. All eukaryotes have mitochondrial genome of which it is very small in size and circular in shape, meaning that depend on the organism the genome will vary in size since others are small, so the specific size normally range from 10Mb in length to 100 000 Mb in higher eukaryotes....   [tags: eukaryotes, genomes]

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Structure of Nucleotides and DNA

- ... 1. The double helix is untwisted and the corresponding stands are unzipped. 2. The hydrogen bonds between the bases are broken freeing the floating nucleotides join with nitrogenous bases forming hydrogen bonds. This part of the reason for complementary base pairing. 3. Once the new nucleotide are bonded together by the enzyme DNA polymerase, which form complete strands opposite the original strands. 4. Finally, all the nucleotides are joined to form a complete polynucleotide chain using DNA polymerase....   [tags: deoxyribonucleic, molecule, bond]

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1142 words | (3.3 pages) | Preview

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