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DNA And DNA: The Importance Of DNA

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule, a material rather, that is present in almost all living organisms. It is self-replicating and is the main constituent of chromosomes. DNA contains genetic/hereditary information. The transmission of traits from one generation to the next is called inheritance. Genetics helps determine the role of DNA in the inheritance of genetic traits.

Genetics is the study of heredity. Offspring obtain genes from parents by a process known as inheritance. Genes(segments of DNA on a chromosome) are the hereditary units of coded information that parents endow to their offspring. The genes in our body program specific traits as we develop from fertilized eggs into adults. The genetic program in our body is the DNA
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The transmission of hereditary traits to some extent has it’s molecular basis in the replication of DNA. The process of DNA replication produces numerous amounts of copies of genes that can be transferred/passed from the parent to the offspring. Animals and plants have specific cells that drive the inheritance of genes. These cell’s are called reproductive cell’s(gametes). Gametes transmit genes from one generation to the next. During fertilization in animals, the male gametes(sperm) and female gametes(eggs) fuse, transferring genes of both parents to the offspring. DNA of any eukaryotic cell is packaged into chromosome into the nucleus of the cell. For every species, there is an unique number of chromosomes. Take humans for instance, each human has 46 chromosomes. These 46 chromosomes are situated in the somatic cells(all cell in the body except gametes) of the body. Chromosomes consists of a long strand of DNA molecule tightly coiled in conjunction with a variety of proteins. A single chromosome consists of several hundreds to several thousand genes. Each gene has a specific sequence of…show more content…
By examining the structure of DNA, it is easier and clearer to see what factors are taken into account when the genes are passed on from parent to offspring. DNA are part of an elite group of compounds called nucleic acids. Nucleic acids are polymers made out of monomers called nucleotides. DNA provides directions for its own replication, directs the synthesis of Ribonucleic acid(RNA) and also controls protein synthesis. This entire process is better known as the gene expression. On a DNA molecule, each gene directs the synthesis of a special type of RNA called messenger RNA. This mRNA molecule works in conjunction with the cell’s protein synthesizing mechanisms to direct the production of a polypeptide chain, which ultimately results in the formation of a protein. Protein synthesis occurs on the ribosomes. However, DNA is found in the nucleus. Nucleic acids comprises of several components. They are macromolecules that exist in the form known as polynucleotides. As mentioned earlier, the monomers of polynucleotides are nucleotides. A nucleotide is made up of three parts: a pentose sugar, a nitrogen containing base and a phosphate group. The sugar that is found in DNA is deoxyribose(lacks an oxygen atom on the second carbon in the ring) and in RNA is ribose. There are four nitrogenous bases in DNA. Each nitrogenous base has one or two rings that include nitrogen
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