The inducer system interacts with the repressor system and changes the overall shape of the repressor. Genetic coding is unique, different, and expressed for every organism. The two main kinds of products that come from gene expression as a result are transcription and translation. Transcription is the process of making a copy of the DNA strand of the organism. Translation transfers the information to the different sites with the help of mRNA.
It can be found in cell organelles such as plasmids in bacteria, also in chloroplasts in plants, and mitochondria in plants and animals. All DNA molecules contain a set of linked units called nucleotides. Each nucleotide is composed of three things. The first is a sugar called deoxyribose. Attached to one end of the sugar is a phosphate group, and at the other is one of several nitrogenous bases.
Know that DNA synthesis is catalyzed by a family of enzymes called DNA polymerases. Understand that DNA polymerase has a requirement for a template on which to synthesize the new DNA strand, and for a primer from which to extend the DNA strand. 3. Understand the various functions of the RNA polymerases, such as exonuclease and polymerase activities, and their function in the replication process. 4.
Chromosomes are comprised of thousands of genes, each having specific sequences of nucleotides which code for specific traits in the organism or functions within each cell. These features could include eye or hair colour of a human, or a specific protein or enzyme which can produce an organism’s inherited traits (Steitz undated). The procedure of reproduction to form a new generation of a particular organism involves the process of meiosis. Meiosis replicates the genes of the parent organism which are then passed down to the offspring. Each organism has a characteristic number of chromosomes which control their hereditary information.
All living things on earth are made up of cells that contain DNA. Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA is the genetic material of living things that can be found in the nucleus of the cells (Alcamo, 1996). It contains the genes and the genetic codes that contain the information that are essential for life’s functions which are passed from generations to generations. DNA composes of two polynucleotide chains twisted around each other in the form of a double helix. According to Alcamo (1996), each strand of the DNA double helix can act as a template for the synthesis of a new complementary strand as it contains a sequence of nucleotides that is exactly complementary to the nucleotide sequence of its partner strand.
DNA is made of a deoxyribose sugar molecule, a phosphate group, and one of four nitrogen containing bases. The four nitrogen containing bases are divided into two groups, Purines and pyrimidines. The structure of DNA is called a double helix because it resembles a spiral stair case. We also learned about, complementary base pairing, replication of DNA, mutations and the structure of RNA. RNA included all three types of mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA.
mRNA carries the genetic code (instructions how to assemble the protein) from the DNA in the nucleus to ribosomes in the cytoplasm. tRNA picks up and transfers amino acids from cytoplasm to the mRNA on the ribosomes and is shaped similar to a cloverleaf. rRNA forms a structural part of ribosome that helps join the amino acid... ... middle of paper ... ...RNA strand can then either be used again to create more proteins or be broken down into their separate nucleotides. Protein Synthesis is the process whereby DNA codes for the production of essential proteins. This process can be divided into two parts, transcription and translation.
Each copy is contained in the chromatid and a characteristic narrow region called the centromere holds the two chromatids together. The centromere can be found anywhere along a chromosome but the position is the characteristic for a particular chromosome. Each Chromatid contains one DNA molecule. DNA is the molecule of inheritance and is made up of a series of genes. The fact that the two DNA molecules in the sister chromatids, and hence their genes, are identical is the key to precise nuclear division.
The resultant recombinant DNA “construct” is usually designed to express the protein(s) that are encoded by the gene(s) included in the construct, when present in the genome of a transgenic animal. Because the genetic code for all organisms is made up of the same four nucleotide building blocks, this means that a gene makes the same protein whether it is made in an animal, a plant or a microbe. Genetic engineering also known as genetic modification, is a direct manipulation of a genome with the use of biotechnology. Genomes are able to removed by using a nuclease, an enzyme capable of cleaving the phosphodiester bond between the nucleotide subunits of nucleic acids. New DNA may be inserted in the host genome by isolating and copying the genetic material that is desired by using molecular cloning methods.
Protein synthesis consists of two main steps: transcription and translation. The DNA is found inside of the nucleus and there in the nucleus a copy of one side of the DNA strand is made, this is the messenger RNA or mRNA. After this the mRNA travels through the cytoplasm with the DNA copy and arrives at the ribosomes. The mRNA then goes through the ribosome three bases at a time. A transfer RNA molecule or tRNA then bring the correct amino acid to match the codon.