Russia From India And China Essay

Russia From India And China Essay

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According to Maddison’s data, it can be reasoned that India and China occupied together approximately half of the world production from 1000 to 1820; however, the share decreases to less than 20% by 1913, and to less than 10% by 1993 (Maddison, 2007a:376). Taking this trend into account, this essay intends to explain the issue using the cases from India and China. Parts of the world that had been centres of thriving economics activity for hundreds of years got left behind after the Industrial Revolution as global economic divergence widened dramatically due to internal causes within a colony, imposition of unfair policies and suppression of local power by metropolitan countries.

Firstly, two main internal factors hindered China from matching the West in development.

Lack of competition “The emergence of a system of nation-states in close propinquity, which had significant trading relations and relatively easy intellectuals interchange in spite of their linguistic differences” (Maddison, 2007:81)
“The major difference between Europe and China was the competitive character of European publishing, and the international trade in books” (Maddison, 2007b:80).

Role of education “The education of its bureaucracy was devoted to ancient classics, and they were able to exercise thought control by more subtle and effective methods than the papacy in Europe” (Maddison, 2007:80)

Secondly, imposition of unfair policies is responsible for India and China’s lag in development for two main reasons.

Unfair policies imposed by Europe weakened local industries in colonies. Several trade policies, which decayed local manufactures, were implemented between European countries and their colonies. Textile industry in India was one of the industr...

... middle of paper ...

...e system as well. Before the era of British colonization, the traditional caste system did not imply completely fixed inequality or class structure; it used to be fluid and had a room for objection (Fujii, 2007). However, the British Empire exploited the caste system and promoted it to be a more fixed class structure; therefore, it assisted the social divide among the locals. The division can be seen as an obstacle to development since it deprives people of freedom. Leftwich mentions, referring to Amartya Sen’s words, “certain ‘instrumental freedoms’ enable people to live more freely and, in linking with and supporting each other, promote development” (Leftwich, 2000:54). In short, the division among the colonized prevents them from “linking with and supporting each other” (Leftwich, 2000:54). Thus, social divides among the locals impeded development.

As mentioned,

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