Firstly, two main internal factors hindered China from matching the West in development.
Lack of competition “The emergence of a system of nation-states in close propinquity, which had significant trading relations and relatively easy intellectuals interchange in spite of their linguistic differences” (Maddison, 2007:81)
“The major difference between Europe and China was the competitive character of European publishing, and the international trade in books” (Maddison, 2007b:80).
Role of education “The education of its bureaucracy was devoted to ancient classics, and they were able to exercise thought control by more subtle and effective methods than the papacy in Europe” (Maddison, 2007:80)
Secondly, imposition of unfair policies is responsible for India and China’s lag in development for two main reasons.
Unfair policies imposed by Europe weakened local industries in colonies. Several trade policies, which decayed local manufactures, were implemented between European countries and their colonies. Textile industry in India was one of the industr...
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...e system as well. Before the era of British colonization, the traditional caste system did not imply completely fixed inequality or class structure; it used to be fluid and had a room for objection (Fujii, 2007). However, the British Empire exploited the caste system and promoted it to be a more fixed class structure; therefore, it assisted the social divide among the locals. The division can be seen as an obstacle to development since it deprives people of freedom. Leftwich mentions, referring to Amartya Sen’s words, “certain ‘instrumental freedoms’ enable people to live more freely and, in linking with and supporting each other, promote development” (Leftwich, 2000:54). In short, the division among the colonized prevents them from “linking with and supporting each other” (Leftwich, 2000:54). Thus, social divides among the locals impeded development.
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