The Role of Public Service

The Role of Public Service

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The Role of Public Service


In Debra Gray’s book: BTEC National Public Service (uniformed) Book 1:
discipline is described as obedience to authority.

Discipline is necessary in all of the Public Services as it moulds
people’s behaviour. It can do this in many ways such as causing fear
of punishment, offering material rewards, or by offering opportunities
if promotion.

The main internet source of definitions I found was here I found definitions such as:

Y A system of rules of conduct or method of practice; "he quickly
learned the discipline of prison routine"; "for such a plan to work
requires discipline";

Y the trait of being well behaved; "he insisted on discipline among
the troops"

Y the act of punishing; "the offenders deserved the harsh discipline
they received"

The dictionary definition of discipline is: control or order exercised
over people or animals; system of rules for this; training or a way of
life aimed at self control or conformity; branch of learning;

Discipline can be used as any of the following:

Deterrent: to stop people from doing something you don’t want them to.
For example to stop people from being late, if they know that
disciplinary action will be taken they will be more unlikely to be

Threat: by telling somebody what they are going to do to them if they
don’t do as they say. For example if one of your members of staff
talks too much and doesn’t get their tasks completed time effectively.
You could say “if you don’t improve dramatically I will sack you!.

Control: discipline can also be used to manipulate and control how
your staff members behave. For example telling a member of staff that
if they do just as you say they will get far in the ranks.

To train: discipline is vital to get new recruits through their
training, to get them to push themselves further even when they may
think that they can do it and may as well give up.

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If an authority
figure continues to have faith in them and makes them go that extra
mile, they are much likely to achieve.

My personal perception of discipline:

I would personally define discipline as the way in which people are
trained to obey the orders of people in authority.

This is mainly done because its part of their job or because they want
to move up the ranks quicker and sowing good self discipline and good
behaviour may well speed this up.

Current affairs:

Abu Ghraib Torture and Prisoner Abuse:

On 2003 a number of serious incidents of abuse and torture of
prisoners that where being held in the Iraqi prison of Abu Ghraib
which was now known as the Baghdad correctional facility.

This was run by personnel o f the 372nd military police company, CIA
officers and contractors which had been involved within the occupation
of Iraq.

In January 2004 an internal criminal investigation by the United
States Army began.

Leading on from this investigation on April of the following year
reports of the abuse, as well as graphic pictures showing American
military personnel in the act of abusing prisoners.

This resulted in an incredible political scandal.

The U.S. Administration and its defenders argued that the abuses were
the result of independent actions by low-ranking personnel, while
critics claimed that authorities either ordered or implicitly condoned
the abuses and demanded the resignation of senior Bush administration

Mr Antonio Taguba carried out an investigation on the events in Abu
Ghraib and wrote a report on these this was known as the Taguba report
and it revealed horrendous events such as the following:

Y Punching, slapping, and kicking detainees; jumping on their naked

Y Videotaping and photographing naked male and female detainees.

Y Forcibly arranging detainees in various sexually explicit positions
for photographing.

Y Forcing detainees to remove their clothing and keeping them naked
for several days at a time.

Y Forcing naked male detainees to wear women's underwear.

Y Forcing groups of male detainees to masturbate while being
photographed and videotaped.

Y Arranging naked male detainees in a pile and then jumping on them.

Y Positioning a naked detainee on a MRE Box, with a sandbag on his
head, and attaching wires to his fingers, toes, and penis to simulate
electric torture.

Y Writing "I am a Rapist" on the leg of a detainee alleged to have
raped a 15-year old fellow detainee, and then photographing him naked.

Y Placing a dog chain or strap around a naked detainee's neck and
having a female soldier pose for a picture.

Y A male MP guard raping a female detainee.

Y Taking photographs of dead Iraqi detainees and MPs posing with
cheerful looks.

Y Breaking chemical lights and pouring the phosphoric liquid on

Y Threatening detainees with a loaded 9mm pistol.

Y Pouring cold water on naked detainees.

Y Beating detainees with a broom handle and a chair.

Y Threatening male detainees with rape.

Y Allowing a military police guard to stitch the wound of a detainee
who was injured after being slammed against the wall in his cell.

Y Sodomizing a detainee with a chemical light and perhaps a broom

Y Using military working dogs (without muzzles) to frighten and
intimidate detainees with threats of attack, and in one instance
actually biting and severely injuring a detainee.

His report points out terrible acts carried out by these soldiers that
showed that the people in higher ranks where not behaving adequately
and allowing such acts to take place or that their where not aware of
such events which makes matters even worse as it shows a complete lack
of discipline and structure the people in higher ranks are responsible
for lower ranking soldiers and they are to make sure they behave
appropriately something which was certainly not done here.

Mr. Antonio Taguba stated that US soldiers had carried out “egregious
acts and grave breaches of international law”

There had been a large number of events where prisoners where treated
in a sadistic, wanton manner. Taguba alleged that the intelligent
forces had asked military police to “loosen up” prisoners before
questioning. This suggests that they could of quite easily be using
torture as a means of getting confessions out of the prisoners when
they where being questioned. But can any statements made by the
prisoners be taken into account when there have been subject to

This is in serious breach of the Human rights act.

In Article 3 of the Human Rights Act (which was signed and agreed to
by the US) it states prohibition of torture and explains this as the
following: “No one shall be subjected to torture or to inhuman or
degrading treatment or punishment”.

The events that took place in Abu Ghraib also breach the Geneva
Convention which states very clear what is acceptable and what isn’t
as to how you treat prisoners of war. In Article 3 of the Geneva it
states the following:

To this end the following acts are and shall remain prohibited at any
time and in any place whatsoever with respect to the above-mentioned

(a) Violence to life and person, in particular murder of all kinds,
mutilation, cruel treatment and torture;

(b) Taking of hostages;

(c) Outrages upon personal dignity, in particular, humiliating and
degrading treatment;

(d) The passing of sentences and the carrying out of executions
without previous judgment pronounced by a regularly constituted court
affording all the judicial guarantees which are recognized as
indispensable by civilized peoples

In article 13 of the Geneva Convention also sates the following:

Prisoners of war must at all times be humanely treated. Any unlawful
act or omission by the Detaining Power causing death or seriously
endangering the health of a prisoner of war in its custody is
prohibited, and will be regarded as a serious breach of the present
Convention. In particular, no prisoner of war may be subjected to
physical mutilation or to medical or scientific experiments of any
kind which are not justified by the medical, dental or hospital
treatment of the prisoner concerned and carried out in his interest.

Likewise, prisoners of war must at all times be protected,
particularly against acts of violence or intimidation and against
insults and public curiosity.

The US Secretary of Defence Donald Rumsfeld there where many more
videos and pictures about events taking place in Abu Ghraib. These are
kept at the Pentagon.

60% of the prisoners at Abu Ghraib weren’t considered to be a threat
to society.

American soldiers used the excuse of “following orders” when carrying
out such horrendous acts. Here is where blind obedience should be

Seventeen soldiers where removed from duty and another seven soldiers
were charged with dereliction of duty, maltreatment, aggravated
assault, and battery because of these findings.

Between May, 2004 and September 2005, seven soldiers were convicted in
courts martial, sentenced to federal prison time and dishonorably
discharged from service. Two soldiers who where at the time engaged to
each other were sentenced to ten years for Specialist Charles Graner,
and three years in prison for Private Lynndie England. The commanding
officer of the prison Brigadier General Janis Karpinski was demoted to
the rank of colonel.

Role of discipline:

In completing this assigned task I am asked to look at two particular
public services, the two public services I have are the Police Service
and the Fire Service. I shall then continue by analysing the role of
these two public services and what they role is, and then explain why
it is important to enforce discipline within these particular public

Role of discipline in the Police service:

Discipline in the police service is to ensure that all members of the
police know what behaviour is appropriate and what behaviour isn’t.
This maintains a structure within the service.

The Police Service in most areas tends to have very similar duties,
the police force is there to “Serve and Protect” the community.

Each element of their work is crucial to keep people safe from each
other. Police patrol our streets regularly; contrary to common belief
this isn’t done just to see if anyone is infringing the law, on many
occasions the police officers are talking to each other in a quite
relaxed manner one of the main reasons for the police patrolling the
streets is to actually deter people from committing a crime, it is
logical that if you for instance are wanting to attack someone you
will do it in the way that it would draw less attention so that you
would be less likely to get caught, not in a place where you are being
observed and can be caught easily, seeing a figure of authority is
more than likely going to make you think twice.

The Police Service is involved in many activities, that I have not yet
mentioned these are the following;

Y Peace-keeping activities

Y Dealing with conflict

It is vital that the police are well organized and have good levels of
self discipline and respect for authority to keep a consistent
structure in the force.

Role of discipline in the Fire service:

Discipline in the fire service is to ensure that all members of the
police know what behaviour is appropriate and what behaviour isn’t.
This maintains a structure within the service

Discipline within the Fire not only maintains a good structure like it
would do in any public service but it also ensures safety. Discipline
ensures that respect and loyalty is maintained and that motivation is

Rules and Regulations:

Police Force:

Within the police force there are many rules that have to be followed
these will guide how they perform their job roles. These rules and
regulations may be in accordance to legal regulations or just rules
within that service regarding things such as uniform and punctuality.

An example of rules and regulations affecting how they perform their
roles are the guidelines for Stop and Search this is included in PACE
(the Police and Criminal Evidence Act).

PACE: this is basically a book which explains al the codes of
practice, this is updated regularly and isn’t only available to
members of the police force but also the general public as it can be
purchased in most bookstores. PACE is separated into sections for easy

Legal powers of the police are governed by the Police and Criminal
Evidence Act most commonly known as PACE this act was created in 1984
to give the police a guideline as to how to cat and when different
actions where appropriate to avoid confusions as to when to take
certain actions, it is a guideline for the police laid out in sections
so that police can follow it logically to detain and question.

There are 5 main areas within PACE that create guidelines for the
police over the main areas in which they are to work with.

Stop- To stop somebody you must have an understandable reason for

Search- you can only do this if it is truly necessary, if you suspect
they may be carrying drugs, stolen goods, etc…

Seizure of goods- this is a form of confiscation. If you believe that
the goods are dangerous or illegal.

Arrest- you may arrest anyone if they believe you have reasonable
grounds to do so. E.g. if you honestly believe that they are breaking
the law.

Detain- this is when suspect is kept in the Police Station, you may
want to keep the person in for further question if have clear evidence
that may affect the case.

Police activities are also controlled by law PCA (Police Complaints
Authority) which was set up to ensure that the police also abide by
the regulation PCA deals with complaints and discipline. Officers from
other forces will always deal with disputes.

Below you will find a table describing these five sections of PACE.

Police roles in the English legal system:

The Polices’ main tasks and responsibilities based on the information
booklet presented by the Derbyshire Constabulary in an information
booklet are the following:

1. Interview people suspected of criminal offences to
discover the truth

2. Interview and record statements from witnesses and victims
of occurrences to discover the truth

3. Processing persons through the custody office by
documentation, fingerprinting and photographing.

4. Identification of persons committing criminal offences,
traffic offences and breaches of the peace and dealing with those
persons according to Force Policy

5. Speaking to and reassuring the public, victims of crime,
victims of road traffic accidents and giving advice on prison

6. Patrol assigned beat, familiarise self with persons and
property in the area to identify policy needs and maintain good
relations with public

7. Gathering of police information on beat area and
submission of such, through written and verbal means

8. Attend court as a witness and give evidence according to
formalised procedures

9. Liaison from Officers from specialised departments and
outside agencies in the resolving of allocated cases

10. Writing of pocket notebook entries, statements and other
documentation, preparation of files for Court and other interested

11. Liaison with colleagues and supervision to ensure that work is
co-ordinated to the Force Aims and Goals

12. Undertake the searching of persons, vehicles and premises to
locate evidence and the recording of circumstances

13. Attending the scenes of crime to obtain details, preserve evidence
and initiate criminal enquiries

14. Attend scenes of road traffic accidents, administer first aid when
necessary, interview participants and record details

15. Be proficient in the use of computer equipment to record crimes,
intelligence etc. Record details of missing persons, may undertake
searches in the immediate vicinity

16. Be proficient in the use of everyday technical equipment,
including radio, telephone, baton, handcuffs, breath testing device,
riot shield, tape recording machines, computers etc

17. Ensure that the safe keeping and lawful disposal of any property
that comes into their possession

18. Attend Scenes of sudden death and record details of Coroner,
ensuring that all persons involved are dealt with in a caring and
compassionate manner

19. To undergo Police instruction both in and out of classroom

20. Undertake any other duties that a Police Officer may be required
to carry out.

The Police Service in most areas tends to have very similar duties
they are there to “Serve and Protect” the community.

Each element of their work is crucial to keep people safe from each
other. Police patrol our streets regularly; contrary to common belief
this isn’t done just to see if anyone is infringing the law, on many
occasions the police officers are talking to each other in a quite
relaxed manner one of the main reasons for the police patrolling the
streets is to actually deter people from committing a crime, it is
logical that if you for instance are wanting to attack someone you
will do it in the way that is the most discreet for you,

Not in a place where you are being observed and can be caught easily,
seeing a figure of authority is more than likely going to make you
think twice.

The Police Service is involved in many activities, that I have not yet
mentioned these are the following;

Y Peace-keeping activities

Y Dealing with conflict

Peace-keeping activities: these aren’t only carried out by soldiers
when they go out to other countries to offer help and support in
keeping violent activities at the lowest rate possible; which is what
springs to mind when we think of peace-keeping. Our local Police
Service will be carrying peacekeeping activities, which are vital to
maintain the security of the community, most of the time. An example
of this is on Friday and Saturday nights in the town centres, where
Police Officers are not only acting as a visual deterrent but also
dealing with the people who may be causing a bother to other members
of the public, this can be very risky as it is highly likely that
these people have been drinking an excessive amount of alcohol, and
are going to violent, the are to keep the situation under control,
this is dealing with trouble-makers in the most appropriate way
depending on the behaviour and auctions of these. This can also be an
example of the Police Service having to deal with conflict, another
example would be when Police Officers are at football stadiums during
matches, this is necessary because there are large groups of people
who can be very excitable, and there is a possibility that fights will
begin between supporters of different teams, it is necessary that the
police is there to represent law and order, and to deal with any
conflict that may occur.

Preserving the Queens Peace:

This is an old concept that while the lords and people of the country
remained loyal to the country the King or Queen would provide the
nation with peace, security and stability. Consequently the police are
to maintain the peace. For this reason somebody can be arrested for
disturbing the Peace

The police do this by

Y Protecting and helping the community

Y And by having Integrity, common sense and sound judgment

The processing of offenders:

Obtaining evidence:

Burden of proof: In civil proceedings the position is essentially that
the claimant takes care of bearing the legal weight of proof for
example if the claimant declares that he and the defendant formed a
contract an that he suffered loss in consequence of the defendant
infringing the contract, it is for the claimant to prove that the
contract was formed, that it was infringe by the defendant and that he
did suffer loss in consequence to that infringement. The police are to
accumulate evidence of sufficient weight to achieve a conviction.

Different police forces are investing more and more money into in
staff and technology to help us analyse the offending patterns of
persistent offenders and targeting them, we have made significant
in-roads into reducing certain types of volume crime.

Giving evidence:

This would be when for example a witness of a crime acts as a witness
in court and gives evidence. A witness in a criminal case is not just
someone who sees an offence being committed. It is anyone who can give
information to the court, relevant to the offence. You may be the
owner of property that has been stolen or damaged. You can give
evidence about the value of the property and when you last saw it
before the damage or theft happened.

Police officers can also give evidence of a crime and act as witness
for example if they saw somebody attack another person and the police
officer had to deal with the situation they can give evidence of what
they saw take place.

The investigation of sudden or suspicious deaths:

In all suspicious deaths the case should be in the beginning
investigated as if it were a murder until the evidence shows this is
not so. In all suspicious deaths, including suspected suicide cases,
investigative priorities must be readily identified thereby ensuring
that key witnesses are interviewed without delay and that illustrates
signs such as clothing are retained and submitted for forensic
examination. It is vital to quickly recover key documentary evidence
regarding the issue of weapons, guard rosters etc as otherwise such
records may be destroyed or lost. The following actions should be

A) The Post Mortem Examination. In suspected suicide cases a Forensic
pathologist should conduct the post mortem examination, with a SOCO in
attendance to provide adequate photography of injuries, take latent
fingerprint impressions, hand swabs etc and to recover the deceased's
clothing. The recovered clothing and any gloves/hand swabs should then
be submitted for forensic examination as necessary. In such cases
clothing and other exhibits, albeit biohazards, should be retained

B) Interview of Key Witnesses. As a matter of policy, a clear strategy
should be determined early in the inquiry to interview and record
statements where necessary from key individuals. It is crucial that
such witnesses are located and interviewed quickly, otherwise their
varying accounts will be clouded by time and confused with accounts
they have heard from elsewhere. Crucially, in cases were suicide is
suspected, it will be necessary to formally record in individual
statements whether the witness can provide any reason for the
deceased's course of action, including whether or not any bullying is
apparent. The full military background of any deceased soldier,
including copies of pertinent orders, training records etc should be
thoroughly researched. Interviews should extend to colleagues, close
friends and military supervisors.

C) Background Medical Factors. It will be necessary to recover a
deceased's medical documents from the medical officer civilian doctor
concerned, and record any material evidence such as any previous
self-harm or psychiatric assessments. This should extend to any
significant behavioural or medical factors prior to joining HM Forces;
the parents of the deceased should also be visited.

D) Families Liaison Officer. It is vital that the bereaved are given
accurate and timely information at the outset of enquiries, as well as
providing important witness information to the Service Police. Whereas
in the United Kingdom the civil police may carry this out, there is no
real substitute to having a Service Police Family Liaison Officer able
to provide accurate factual information and support both from a police
and "Army" perspective. A trained Families Liaison Officer (FLO)
should be appointed in all cases, and services offered to the bereaved
through the civilian police and PS4 (A) CAS/Comp. It is imperative
that any visit by a Service Police FLO is thoroughly co-ordinated, a
joint civil/service police being the favoured option in the United
Kingdom. Once cleared, consideration should be given to allowing the
bereaved an escorted visit to the scene of death.

E) Other Investigative Considerations. Depending on the circumstances,
specifically where evidential gaps appear, the following actions,
which are not exhaustive, should be considered:

1st Searches of the deceased's room, place of work, vehicle, combined
with the recovery of any mobile telephone or computer belonging to or
used by the deceased.

2nd Determine the whereabouts of all people in the area.

3rd Consider any house-to-house enquiries.

4th Consider media appeals for information.

5th Produce customised witness performs when it is necessary to deal
with large numbers of potential witnesses, such as in a barrack area.

6th Consider a "reconstruction" of route taken by deceased prior to

Fire Service:

It is vital that rules and regulations are followed in every Public
service but in the Fire service there is a high level of danger
involved and they have to be well organized and work well in a team
know what each person is doing and stick to plans made for example if
there was a burning building to rescue the people that are trapped
inside. It is necessary to make sure people know what they are meant
to be doing and how the whole team is going to deal with the
situation, so that the mission is carried out as well as possible. The
results of this would be that the functions would be carried out in a
safer way, reducing the possibilities of loosing lives, and less
damage being caused and the increase of the crew’s safety.

Esprit de corps:

Esprit de corps is the term used to define the sense of pride, mutual
trust, loyalty, and belonging within the particular public service you
belong to. Rules and regulations are in place to make sure that the
esprit de corps is maintained. And if a member of that particular
public service breaks the rules then he or she is disciplined. A
member miss-behaving could bring a bad name upon the specific public
service, having pride about the work you carry out would avoid this.
Behaviours that would for example bring the Police Force into
disregard would be for example:

Y Coercion

Y Racism

Y Drug dealing

Y Murder

Y Theft

Y Neglect of duty

Y Fraud

Y Assault

Y Corruption

Y Preventing the cause of justice

Y Threatening behaviour

Y Harassment

Behaviours such as the above would not be accepted within the force,
but when the community found out about them it would make the
community likely to have a flawed look onto the Service.

Both the Police service and the Fire service do a great work for the
local communities they work in. members of both these Public services
have every reason to have pride in their work and in the belonging to
these services.

This is the feeling of companionship between you and your colleagues,
the feeling that you are a team and feel proud of the work you are
doing. This is essential to keep a good team spirit and allow things
to run smoothly.

Following orders:

An essential factor of discipline is following orders. Not following
orders leads to the undermining that persons authority. People who are
in authority are there because they have proven that they deserve to
be through their hard work to get and expertise.

Not following orders would have a very negative effect on you as you
would be disciplined for this, as behaviours like this could easily
lead to people dieing or being seriously wounded.

Police force:

If for example you were told to go search a house to look for
evidence, and you refused to because you thought that you had a better
plan which meant not searching the house yet. Your actions could lead
to evidence being hidden, and the case falling through. In which case
you would be disciplined for not following orders, and preventing the
course of justice.

Fire service:

I am now going to write an example of what could happen if you didn’t
follow instructions given.

There’s a fire in a house you and you colleagues have been briefed on
the situation and you have been told to meet back outside after a
short period of time once he inside the house he has the idea that he
can stay a little longer and go about it differently and he decides to
do so. Outside the team members are waiting for him ad decide that
something must of happened to him so although the victims have rescued
the fire-fighters re-enter the enter the building in order to try and
save their colleague. But the fire has spread too much and two of them
die inside the house whilst the fire-fighter that did not follow the
orders comes out of the back of the house with only mild injuries.

Here the fire-fighters irresponsible attitude costs two or the lives
of their colleagues.

Hierarchy of Authority:

The Hierarchy of Authority is the pattern in which each rank is
separated going from your lowest rank to your highest. You can move
through the ranks by showing your worthiness in your behaviour,
through qualifications, or bettering yourself through specific courses
or schemes.

Police forces Hierarchy of Authority:

Chief Constable


Deputy Chief Constable


[IMAGE]Assistant Chief Constable

Chief Superintendent




Chief Inspector







The Fire Service’s Hierarchy of Authority:

Chief Fire Officer


Deputy Chief Fire Officer and Assistant Chief Fire Officer


Senior Divisional Fire Officer


Divisional Officer


Assistant Divisional Officer

[IMAGE]Station Officer


Sub Officer


Leading Fire Fighter


Fire Fighter

Maintaining Order:

Order can be maintained through discipline, even though there may not
be any actual rules governing this.

Most expectations toward how the members of the police service behave
are set up within the rules and regulations, but anything that isn’t
can be achieved by discipline within the specific service and the
respect towards authority.


Loyalty refers to being faithful or truthful to somebody in this case
the public service you belong to. This implies that a member of a
particular public service shouldn’t miss behave or fail to follow
orders for example if they are being attacked he or she should stick
by the team members and carry on doing their job regardless of the
situation. Even if this means putting your own best interests at risk.

Current affairs:

Here I am going to include an extract from the article found on the
following website

Reservists plead moral objection to fighting Iraq

Members of the Territorial Army are registering as "conscientious
objectors" with the Ministry of Defence and refusing to fight in a war
against Iraq.

The Telegraph has found that three soldiers in one unit have applied
to be exempted from service in the Gulf on grounds that the conflict
is "morally wrong". Under the terms of the 1996 Reserve Forces Act,
anyone who refuses to answer a call up is liable to a court martial or
prosecution in a civil court. They face jail if found guilty.

Despite that prospect, one of the "conscientious objectors", who
serves with the Territorial Army's 217 Field Squadron, based in
Holloway, north London, said that he had told the MoD he was not
prepared to go to Iraq. He added that he would use all available
avenues to seek exemption from fighting in a "war about revenge".

The man, a 36-year-old architect who has been a member of the TA for
six years, said: "When I joined I was quite prepared to be called up
to defend my country. But this war is not about defending Britain. If
I go to war then I want it to be with the support of my country and
not just because the president of the United States wants cheaper oil

"I joined to learn new skills. I was under the impression that it was
a voluntary commitment but now I realise that it is not that easy to
get out of. But I will use all avenues available.”

"People are very upset about being forced to go to war in these
circumstances. They do not want to fight a war they don't believe in."

Two of the soldier's colleagues in 217 Field Squadron - a man and a
woman - have also sought exemption on moral grounds, after being given
12 days to report for duty or provide a valid reason for not doing so.
All three have officially been excused from duty, though on the basis
of objections from their employers.

The reservists' attitude was criticised by former soldiers. Neil
Griffiths, of the Royal British Legion in Scotland, said: "It comes
down to them not having the stomach for going to war. They probably
joined the TA because they enjoyed putting on a uniform at weekends
and taking a two-week holiday in the sun with the lads.

The TA makes up a quarter of the British Army and consists of 40,000
part-time volunteer soldiers. Members are expected to attend one night
a week at their local centre and give up 30 days a year for training
weekends and camps. Nearly 5,000 TA members have been sent call-up
notices for Iraq and about 1,500 have already reported for duty.

The MoD said that on average 20 per cent of reservists sought
exemption but was unable to say on what grounds. "At this stage it is
impossible to know how many, if any, of the exemptions were sought on
the basis of conscientious objection," said a spokesman.

This brings in to mind an important issue with discipline the TA is
part of the Army, which in turn is well known for its high levels of
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