The Rate Of Human Cancer Cell Lines Essay

The Rate Of Human Cancer Cell Lines Essay

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The first aim of this project was to evaluate the emph{in vivo} growth rates of human cancer cell lines before they were xenotransplantated into zebrafish larvae. The zebrafish with xenotransplanted cells were maintained at 34$^circ$C to ensure the survival of both zebrafish and human cells. The results demonstrate that all human cell lines grow at slower rate at 34$^circ$C. Furthermore, the rates of growth are affected by the temperature of continuous culturing prior to seeding, as shown for U-251 mCherry that was maintained at 34$^circ$C three months before the emph{in vitro} experiment. The doubling times for the U-251 mCherry that was continuously cultured at 34$^circ$C were 1.8 times longer at 34$^circ$C, and 1.2 times longer at 37$^circ$C, compared to U-251 mCherry that were growing at U-251 mCherry that was maintained at 37$^circ$C prior to the study. Future experiments may investigate how long after acclimatising to hypothermic conditions, cells will have comparable doubling times with cells that were continuously cultured at 37$^circ$C when returned to the optimal temperature of 37$^circ$C. Such information may be of interest to study transcriptional changes and alterations in the energy metabolism of cancer cell lines. Moreover these data may be of use when monitoring the growth and angiogenesis of xenotransplanted tumour cells in the zebrafish for longer time courses.

The growth of tumours is often monitored though the change in the volume of the cancerous tissue over time (). In order to achieve the second aim of this project that was to evaluate tumour growth emph{in vivo}, cell lines U-251 mCherry, U-87 mCherry, G26 GFP, and MCF-7 Turbo 635 were xenotransplanted in the optic tectum or the otic. Then, the tumo...

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...t is too early to decide upon a universal mechanism of action of neutrophils against tumour cells.

Finally, an optimised experimental design may rely on the comparison of microglia and neutrophil responses in zebrafish larvae that are knock-outs of the other cell type, still enabling the observation of interactions between the immune cell of interest and the xenotransplanted cells.

chapter{Conclusions and Future Work}

The results from this Master 's project show that the level of phagocytosis and the number of interactions between microglia/ macrophages and xenografted cancer cells are higher in the heterotopic xenotransplants compared to the orthotopic xenotransplants. Future work may focus on investigating particular membrane receptors and signalling pathways through bioinformatics tools, in order to shed light on the mechanisms underlying tissue recognition.

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