The Protective Properties Of Viruses Essay

The Protective Properties Of Viruses Essay

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1. Viruses are microscopic obligate intracellular parasites that cause viral infections in bacteria, protozoa, fungi, algea, plants and animals alike. Their basic structure is a protein shell surrounding a nucleic acid core of either DNA or RNA. Viruses do not independently fulfill the requirements needed to be classified as truly alive and are not considered cells. Viruses require a host cell 's genetic material to be able to multiply. Furthermore, viruses lack the enzymes needed to create proteins and use the host cell 's machinery to synthesize these proteins.
2. Bacteria adapt to their environment by producing a Glycocalyx coating made of repeating polysaccharides, proteins, or both. This coating, either as a slime layer or capsule, protects the cell and sometimes helps the cell adhere to its environment. The protective properties of this coating can function as a shield which helps protect against phagocytes. The adhesive qualities of this coating help bacteria form biofilm. Another way bacteria adapt to their environment is through the formation of a ridged cell wall. The cell wall helps bacteria maintain their structure in a fluid environment and prevents cell rupture due to osmotic pressure. A third way bacteria adapt, is by producing inclusion bodies. These inclusion bodies store nutrients in times of abundance which are then used when nutrients are depleted. Some inclusion bodies also include gas vesicles that act as flotation devices for the bacteria. A final was bacteria adapt is by producing endospores. When harsh environmental conditions are met, vegetative cells will produce endospores. These endospores are able to survive extreme heat, cold, dryness, radiation and even deadly chemicals.
3. Louis Pasteur was a Fren...


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...a present is staph, since only staph will grow on the plate and the acidic by-product will turn this plate yellow.
9. Bacteria within our bodies have formed delicate and balanced colonies known as resident biota. These normal biota keep the invading and possibly pathogenic bacteria in check by preventing their overgrowth. Bacteria in a healthy functioning act as microbial antagonists in every non-sterile environment in or on the body, from our skin, to our external ear canals, and even our external genitals. An example of what happens when the helpful bacteria in our resident biota is removed, is when antibiotic use results in oral thrush or a yeast infection. By removing the positive and beneficial bacteria from these environments, harmful bacteria is given the opportunity to grow uninhibited, thus infecting the habitat of these once friendly and helpful bacteria.

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