Endurance running can be defined as utilising aerobic metabolism to run several kilometres over extended time periods (Bramble 2004). Endurance running is absent in quadruple primates (disregarding “social carnivores” and “migratory ugulates”) (Bramble 2004). Despite their primate origins, there is evidence humans are able to attain more impressive speed and distances than previously considered (Bramble 2004). Running can be classified in three stages; contact, mid-stance and propulsion (Rolian et al 2009). Springs:
During the mid-stance phase, muscles and tendons store and release strain energy (Bramble 2004). In comparison ...
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...bled hominids to outrun their predators to exhaustion, due to their range of optimal speeds, increased heat dissipation, and physical features desgined to minimize energetic costs (Bramble 2004, Carrier et al. 1984). This process occurs in hunter-gather socities today, including the Taruhumura Indians chasing deer until they collapse, and Aborigines of Australia hunting kangaroos (Carrier et al. 1984)
during periods that lacked technologies such as bows, arrows and spears (bramble 2004). By doing so, hominids would have been able to “exploit protein-rich resources such as meat, marrow and brain first evident in the archaeological record at approximately 2.6 Myr ago, coincident with the first appearance of Homo.” (Bramble 2004). This protein rich diet is believed responsible for humans uniquely “large bodies, small guts, big brains and small teeth.” (Bramble 2004).
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