“Pervaporation is a process in which a liquid stream containing two or more components is placed in contact with one side of a nonporous polymeric membrane, while a vacuum or gas purge is applied to the other side. The components in the liquid stream sorb into the membrane, permeate through the membrane, and evaporate into the vapor phase” (Freeman 6.59). The term pervaporation is derived “from the two major operations, involved in the separation process, namely, permeation and evaporation” (Peng Ming 815-820). Pervaporation has become more common place in the recent years regarding environmental concerns; this is mostly due to its effectiveness in removing volatile organic compounds from large amounts of water. Conventionally, air stripping or activated carbon are used in these situations but pervaporation has certain advantages over these methods. “Air stripping is susceptible to fouling and merely turns a water pollution problem into an air pollution problem, and activated carbon treatment involves costly regeneration steps and may not be suitable for VOCs that are easily displaced by other organic compounds” (Freeman 6.59). There are also a number of other advantages to pervaporation. The process creates no fugitive emissions, so there is no air pollution created. On the permeate side of the membrane, volatile organic compounds are continuously removed, so there are no regeneration costs. Also, the process uses compact systems and there is potential to recycle or reuse the recovered volatile organic compounds. The theory behind pervaporation can be explained through mathematical equations and certain experimental parameters.
Membrane performance is evaluated by the experimental parameters of permea...
... middle of paper ...
...en used to meet NPDES limitations.
There are few limitations on the use of pervaporation technology. First, the pre-filter needs to be cleaned frequently to prevent solids from clogging it. Second, anti-scalents need to be added with influent streams of high alkalinity. Lastly, “highly soluble organics, such as alcohols, are not effectively removed by a single-stage pervaporation process” (Zenon Environmental, Inc. 4). Even with some limitations pervaporation has been proven to be an effective technology.
Pervaporation removes volatile organic compounds to near maximum contaminant levels. Pervaporation modules produce satisfactory results with minimal personnel in a compact design. With spiral-wound, hollow-fiber and plate and frame style modules there is a good amount of flexibility in the technology for treating various pollutants at various concentrations.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- reactions and sunlight. Pollutants like Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) that are called ozone precursors, and they combine in the presence of hot, stagnant, sunny weather to create ozone or smog (United States Department of Agriculture). Ozone is the primary ingredient of photochemical smog, which irritates eyes and throat and also damage vegetation (Ahrens, 2011). Ozone precursors in Fresno come from emission vehicles, agricultural machines or equipment, dairy products (foods and drinks), and consumer products such as hair spray.... [tags: Air pollution]
1207 words (3.4 pages)
- Introduction The purpose of this experiment was to identify the numerous volatile compounds not listed on the label, determine the quantity of chloride present, and to determine the various species of citrate and phosphate present in Gatorade. The volatile compounds in sports drinks are usually labeled as “natural flavors” and were identified using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GCMS). The quantity and determination of chloride was determined using the ion selective electrode (ISE) method.... [tags: chloride, gas chromatography, procedure]
971 words (2.8 pages)
- 3.1 Qualitative Analysis The total number of volatile compounds found in sea buckthorn juice varies according to published data [8-12] and this study reports the highest number of compounds found so far, but there is an annual variation. In 2011, a total of 74, 89, 72 volatile compounds were extracted from 3 varieties (Hergo, wild and Frugana) of sea buckthorn berries (figure 1 and 2, table 1). A significant decline in the number of volatiles was seen in the 2012 harvest with only 17, 39, 9, 20 volatile compounds extracted in four varieties of berries (Hergo, wild, Frugana, Askola), (figure 3, and table 1).... [tags: chemical analysis]
1525 words (4.4 pages)
- Groundwater Management Act New Jersey does not have a groundwater management act. New Jersey’s groundwater management activities are regulated by the Water Supply Management Act, which deals with various surface water and groundwater supply issues. A separate act on groundwater management can be formulated for New Jersey, which will provide step by step guidelines and a definite timeline to achieve sustainable management for New Jersey groundwater resources. Improve Sustainable Groundwater Management New Jersey’s groundwater management can be improved by several actions: 1) Identifying groundwater management areas throughout the state.... [tags: Water, Groundwater, Hydrology, Water resources]
1195 words (3.4 pages)
- The suspected sources of the groundwater contaminant plume are historical releases from several facilities (including Sunshine Laundry, Elite Cleaners, and American Linen Corporation) that operated laundry and/or dry‐cleaning facilities near the corner of 3rd Street and Roma Avenue from 1924 to 1973. In 1973, the buildings were demolished and replaced by a paved parking area as part of an urban development plan. The City of Albuquerque first discovered chlorinated solvent contamination in groundwater near the site in April 1989, during a routine inspection of the Coca‐Cola bottling plant water supply well, located at 205 Marquette Avenue NE, which was plugged and abandoned in 1989.... [tags: Water, Groundwater]
1132 words (3.2 pages)
- We realize that extracting from groundwater has advantages as well as disadvantage, in order to provide advantages and disadvantages we first need to know what the meaning of groundwater. Groundwater which is known as aquifer is water that satiates the crevices and openings of rocks and residues that is positioned below the surface of the ground. A mask amount of the groundwater is protected because it is underground, therefore leaving it purely clean and exempt from the pollution on the earth.... [tags: Groundwater Depletion]
895 words (2.6 pages)
- In addition to water from lakes and rivers, groundwater can also be contaminated. Groundwater contamination can originate from several sources. First of all, groundwater can be contaminated by gas leaks from storage tanks, which have chemicals such as oil). In addition, toxic leaks from landfill sites and leaks of industrial chemicals from manufacturing sites can also cause groundwater contamination, as chemicals can leak into the groundwater if they are not managed properly. Bacteria can also contaminate the groundwater when fertilizers, pesticides, and septic tanks leak.... [tags: Water, Water pollution, Hydrology, Groundwater]
822 words (2.3 pages)
- What are organic compounds, you may ask. Well organic compounds are compounds that always contain carbon, or any compound that contains a carbon atom. But some describe organic compounds as any of a large class of chemical compounds in which one or more atoms of carbon are covalently linked to atoms of other elements, most commonly are hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. But there are a few exceptions to this organic rule, which are carbon monoxide, carbonates, carbon dioxide, cyanides, cyanates, carbides, and thyocyanates, which are all considered inorganic.... [tags: Carbon Atoms, Chemical Compounds]
1017 words (2.9 pages)
- Threats to Groundwater The 1/3rd of the world is covered with land. Other sector is in water. Water is one of the most important natural resources for living. It is use for drinking, fertilizing, washing and many other things to do with it. Now the water condition is very bad. The environment suffers the water condition and its purity. The ground water is one of our valuable sources. “The water we drink and use everyday might be called our most valuable resource. Agriculture, manufacturing, brewing, and other day-to-day activities depend on reliable, pure groundwater.... [tags: Soil, Precipitation, Resource]
1579 words (4.5 pages)
- Topic: Major threats & issues/ Threats to groundwater Question: What can be done do decrease the potential contamination threat to South Australian water by Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs). In order for living and non-living things to survive water is necessary. Some 72 percent of Earth is covered in water, but 97 percent of that is salty ocean water and not suitable for drinking. Most of the remaining 3 percent water is freshwater and locked up in ice layers or glaciers or it’s too deep underground to be reached to salty to be used.... [tags: contamination, pharmaceuticals, chemicals]
928 words (2.7 pages)