The Origin Of Species And Animals Essay

The Origin Of Species And Animals Essay

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From prehistoric period to the present time, plants and animals have been modified by breeding and natural selection. In the beginning of the human civilizations, human beings unconsciously started to create new forms of living beings denominated “hybrids”, crossing different individuals and species during the domestication process. According to Root (2007), an important example of domestication process can be illustrated by the dogs that arose from the wolf circa the 12,000. The canines, in general, were probably used as a helper during the hunting in the Neolithic communities.
Several lineages of organisms were created during the process of characteristic selection and a considerable practical knowledge was developed by breeders over the centuries. However, in the view of Hartl and Orel (1992), until the 1800’s, most of the process involving modification of living beings remained empirical, in other words, the variations were made by chance using crossings between individuals. At this point, two historical facts during the development of the genetic knowledge should be emphasized: the publication of The Origin of Species in 1859 by Charles Darwin, and the advent of genetics with the work of the Augustinian monk, Gregor Mendel, in 1865. The previous one introduced the evolution theory through the natural selection and adaptation of the species, and the second provided the basic elements to comprehend the transmission of the characteristics among the descendants.
In the 1900’s, several significant findings stimulate the development of the modern genetics. One of the most important events was the recognition that DNA is truly the molecule that carry the genetic information through the genes. This breakthrough permitted focused effo...


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...ization, however, happened in April of 215 when the Nature magazine showed that a group of Chinese scientists had modified human embryos producing artificial human germline. It was the first time that the human genome was modified consciously to create a new life that presents the desirable characteristics.
In short, advances have allowed scientists to manipulate and add genes to a variety of different organisms and induce a range of different effects. Since 1976 the genetic modification technology has been commercialized, with companies producing and selling genetically modified food and medicine. The expectations about the use of the Genetic Engineering to solve several biological and social problems is high in the scientific community, but just the time will show how the society will assimilate this recent area as well to applicate it to the benefit of itself.

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