Essay on Natural Selection Acts On Organisms ( Millstein )

Essay on Natural Selection Acts On Organisms ( Millstein )

Length: 1393 words (4 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Better Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

Millstein, a scientists experimenting with species of beetles, argued that each of these positions could be right in one way, but wrong in another in that natural selection takes place at the level of populations, but it is a causal process when done this way (2006). Arguments between scientists are often if natural selection acts on a population level or an individual level (Millstein, 2006). Dealing with this issue of levels, the difference between the two arguments can be shown by an example of a person believing, in terms of the levels of selection, that selection acts on organisms (Millstein, 2006). This person may ask whether the selection process was acting on individual organisms or populations of organisms (Millstein, 2006). The second question is the one that strikes scientists as interesting (Millstein, 2006). Scientists wish to talk about individual population rather than a class or type of population (Millstein, 2006). However, they should understand that individual refers to individual organisms, whereas a population refers to a collection of organisms, where natural selection would be taking place (Millstein, 2006).

Selection exhibits population-level causation in accordance with a number of different accounts of causation (Millstein, 2006). Three of which can be a counterfactual account, a manipulability account, and a controlled experiment account (Millstein, 2006), but only the first two will be reviewed. For each of the three cases heritable differences in physical characteristics and differences in reproductive success can be seen (Millstein, 2006). With the counterfactual account, the heritable difference can be explained by saying that the differences in reproductive success do not occur (Millstein, 2006). N...

... middle of paper ...

...the ideas of kin selection and altruism between the members of the species (Wyatt et. al., 2013).

Drawing from ideas from Darwin’s famous book and experiments dealing with different levels of selection, one can explore the thought that natural selection may favor selection on the population, gene, and group levels while also acquiring ideas of kin selection. A central issue in evolutionary biology is the exploration of functional traits among populations and the extent to which this variation has adaptive value (Ramírez-Valiente et. al., 2014). Scientists also look into the idea of how these variations play into natural selection and how it acts on groups of individuals (Ramírez-Valiente et. al., 2014). Darwin saw organismal selection as the main process by which varieties were created and embraced the idea that group selection is a viable possibility (Haug, 2007).

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Sexual Selection and Natural Selection Essay

- Selection is the functional relationship between phenotypes and fitness. Natural selection is the production of organisms according to their physical attributes whereby off springs of the younger generations takes the strong, desired and inheritable aspects of their parents. They become more adapted to the environment although some does well than others according to their individual traits which are attributed to their phenotypes (Sinervo, 1997). According to Charles Darwin, fitness can be described in three different forms of selection which interferes with the mean of phenotypic traits in a population....   [tags: Natural Selection, Evolution Essays]

Better Essays
538 words (1.5 pages)

Natural Selection And Genetic Selection Essay

- “Animals are adapted to their conditions in subtle and marvelous ways (Boyd, R., & Silk, J. 1997:2).” It is commonly recognized that Darwin identified adaptations through Natural Selection: traits that are advantageous to survival will be retained in the population through reproduction. Natural Selection further indicates that traits will survive when they are most beneficial to an individual’s fitness. While Natural Selection and Mutation effectively explains adaptive fitness qualities and variance among populations, it fails to explain species beautiful ornamental traits that are not necessarily beneficial to fitness....   [tags: Natural selection, Charles Darwin, Male, Sex]

Better Essays
1164 words (3.3 pages)

Evolution And Natural Selection Are Related Essay

- Darwinian evolution is the theory of biological evolution stating that all species of organisms arise and develop through the natural selection of small, inherited variations that increase the individual’s ability to compete, survive and reproduce. This theory was settled by Charles Darwin, a naturalist and geologist best known for this evolutionary theory. Darwinian evolution has been around since the 19th century (Darwin C. 1859 Descendant of Man), and has continued to now 2015. Some changes that are provided from Darwin until now includes the discovery of how genes have different biological or behavioral traits, and how genes are passed down to the offspring....   [tags: Evolution, Natural selection, Creationism]

Better Essays
1241 words (3.5 pages)

Evolution Of Evolution And Natural Selection Essay

- Evolution can be defined as the process through which the characteristics of a species undergo changes over a number of generations through the process of natural selection. There are different mechanisms that try to explain the evolution process and these are mutation, migration, genetic drift and natural selection. However for natural selection and genetic drift to take place there must exist a certain type of genetic variation. To begin with natural selection can be defined as the process through which organisms that are better adapted to a certain environment survive and produce fertile off springs....   [tags: Evolution, Biology, Natural selection, Gene]

Better Essays
920 words (2.6 pages)

The Theory Of Natural Selection Essay

- In science today we can see that every species has diversity amongst them. We know that these differences are caused by many different factors. Two of those factors are mutation and natural selection. These two different processes have a major effect on a how species will continue to reproduce and thrive. Both of these methods play a major role in evolution dating back to over a million years ago. Natural selection is the process where organisms that are better adapted to their environment tend to survive and produce more offspring to continue the species....   [tags: DNA, Evolution, Natural selection, Genetics]

Better Essays
787 words (2.2 pages)

Essay on Natural Selection That Causes Evolution

- Genetic drift decreases genetic variation in a population. It is very important mechanism in addition to natural selection that causes evolution. The process of evolution has been explained through various evolutionary methods in particular molecular phylogenies. Scientists have become very interested in learning about other mechanism beside natural selection that can explain evolution. Natural selection is very important to mechanism that helps explain factors such as morphology, behavior that are related to phenotype which can affect reproduction and survival of an animal....   [tags: Gene, DNA, Evolution, Natural selection]

Better Essays
718 words (2.1 pages)

Natural Selection and The Design Argument Essay

- The Design Argument is quite similar to The Cosmological Argument as it attempts to infer the existence of God, but instead of from the existence of the cosmos it is from a particular aspect or character of the world, namely the presence of order, regularity and purpose. Order, regularity and purpose are seen as marks of design, and the argument concludes that God must be the source of that design. There are various types of Design Arguments, with philosophers giving them different names but the two most well known are The Argument from Design and The Argument to Design....   [tags: Natural Selection Essays]

Free Essays
621 words (1.8 pages)

Essay on The Process of Natural Selection

- Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection explains the general laws by which any given species transforms into other varieties and species. Darwin extends the application of his theory to the entire hierarchy of classification and states that all forms of life have descended from one incredibly remote ancestor. The process of natural selection entails the divergence of character of specific varieties and the subsequent classification of once-related living forms as distinct entities on one or many levels of classification....   [tags: Natural Selection, Evolution Essays]

Better Essays
1714 words (4.9 pages)

Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection Essay

- 1. The number of prey decreases whilst the number of predators remains constant however, there might be an increase in the population of the fittest predator even though the total number would not change. In addition to that each predator has different capabilities and those capabilities allow them to survive much better than the other predators, for example the hands were the fittest because they were equipped with the best tools for gathering food, whilst the clothes pegs were the least effective....   [tags: Natural Selection Essays]

Free Essays
640 words (1.8 pages)

Evolution through Natural Selection Essay

- Children often play a game called telephone, where one child whispers a statement into another child's ear, and the statement is passed on to other children; at the end of the game the last child will repeat the statement that was told to him or her. The majority of the time, the statement said would be completely different than the original one. This is an example of evolution through natural selection; where somewhere along the life span of the statement, it was modified, and the modified statement was passed on to form a new statement....   [tags: Natural Selection Essays]

Free Essays
500 words (1.4 pages)