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Fossil record Scientists have gathered the evidence for evolutionary change, but the evidence appears to light by means of fossils (paleontology) and the rock record (ge... ... middle of paper ... ...oghue, P. C., Bell, C. J., Calway, T. D., Head, J. J., Holroyd, P. A., ... & Benton, M. J. (2012). Best practices for justifying fossil calibrations. Systematic Biology, 61(2), 346-359. Prasad, V., Strömberg, C. A. E., Leache, A. D., Samant, B., Patnaik, R., Tang, L., ... & Sahni, A.
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This led him to make rational assumptions and formulate general laws about the birds’ evolution. His induction being that these differences were firstly due to chance variations in inherited characteristics amongst the birds. After this, particular characteristics that gave birds a higher chance of survival in a particular environment became features (that by virtue of selection) survived and became dominant in that specific bird. This methodology also included making deductions and so from seeing relatively stable animal populations despite high birth rates, Darwin concluded that this had to be due to high death rates, and then (amongst others such as Wallace) was able to go on to create bigger theories about selection – natural and sexual. Another method used is Hypothetico-deductive reasoning and testing whereby on the basis of evolutionary principles that are understood and accepted, particular hypotheses or predictions are made and then tested.
Plato cou... ... middle of paper ... ...ptation and the emergence of new species were linked. If two groups of individuals from the same species were separated, finches for example, and placed in different environments, then after many generations, the two groups will have accumulated differences making it possible to differentiate two distinct species. The Galapagos finches can be differentiated by the size of their beak, which is adapted to the food available on the islands. Darwin had an intuition of the importance of these mechanisms to explain evolution. In the early 1840s, the main principles of Darwin’s theory of evolution were formulated by the mechanism of natural selection; however, he did not publish it.