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Applied Pharmacology
Morphine is excreted through the urinary system and the biliary system. In the urinary system, the drug is excreted according to the amount of urine being excreted by an individual (Armstrong & Cozza 2003). After being consumed by the liver, morphine is passed to the blood stream, from where it reaches the kidney for excretion. The drug is then taken up in the urinary system and directed to the urinary bladder for excretion. The drug is metabolized in the liver after which it is passed to the kidney. Upon ingestion, over 60 % of the drug is converted to M3G, a compound that makes it highly effective in the central nervous system. The reaction of morphine in the body is as shown in the diagram below.
Morphine alters the operations of interleukin and this normally causes adverse effects upon the host. When morphine attacks the central and sympathetic nervous systems, many cellular and molecular activities are altered (Chahl 1996). One of the functions that are altered is stimuli detection. Pain and other stimuli are not detected once the drug is taken. In case a patient is suffering from asthma and leukemia, it is advisable not to administer the drug (Jiang & Ma 2007).
Leukemia is a disease associated with blood and the effects of morphine on blood are immense, given that the drug attacks the organs dealing in blood circulation (Health Grades 2011). Morphine may therefore be a very dangerous drug to combine with leukemia as it may cause a serious blood clot and eventually death. Asthma is also another disease that should never be combined with morphine.
Advair Diskus is one of the drugs that unfavorably interact with morphine (Stoelting 1999). The drug is used in treatment of asthma and when it reacts with morphine, the patient would have to be treated in pain. This is because both drugs stimulate the respiratory organs and make the heartbeats to increase (Bartnik, Hovda & Lee 2007). Flexeril may also cause adverse effects when taken in combination with morphine. This is because the drug is a depressant of the central nervous system and respiratory system (Department of Health 2011). In addition to these two drugs, Lexapro should never be taken with morphine as it may increase the reactions and depressant effects at the central nervous system and the respiratory system. The consequences are total body inactivity and if taken in overdose, a coma or death may occur (Martin, Rosenthal & Fiskum 2005).

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These reactions influence the development of heart-related problems and may cause the body to react negatively with morphine. In such situations, pain may still be experienced and despite the dosage of morphine, stimuli may still be passed through the cellular walls (Stoelting & Miller 2000). When the depressant effects are increased, the body looses control of its functions and instead leaves the drug to take over. Morphine also impairs MyD88 dependence and therefore patients taking pneumonia drugs, are discouraged from taking it. There are various adverse reactions that result from the combination between morphine and pneumonia drugs (National Center for Biotechnology Information 2011).

Works Cited

Armstrong, SC & Cozza, KL 2003, ‘Pharmacokinetic drug interactions of morphine, codeine, and their derivatives: Theory and clinical reality, part I’, Psychosomatics, vol. 44, pp. 167-171
Bartnik, BL, Hovda, DA & Lee, PW 2007, ‘Glucose metabolism after traumatic brain injury: Estimation of pyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate dehydrogenase flux by mass isotopomer analysis’, Journa of Neurotrauma, vol. 24, pp. 181–194.
Chahl, LA 1996, Opioids - mechanisms of action, viewed 31 August 2011,
Department of Health 2011, Opioid Overdose Prevention, viewed 31 August 2011,
Health Grades 2011, Morphine, viewed 9 August 2011,
Jiang, X, Li, J & Ma, L 2007, ‘Metabolic enzymes link morphine withdrawal with metabolic disorder’, Cell Research, vol. 17, pp. 741–743.
Martin, E, Rosenthal,RE & Fiskum, G 2005, ‘Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex: Metabolic link to ischemic brain injury and target of wxidative stress’, Journal of Neuroscience Research, vol. 79, pp. 240–247.
National Center for Biotechnology Information 2011, Morphine dependence, National Center for Biotechnology Information, Bethesda, MD.
Stoelting, RK & Miller, RD 2000, Intravenous anesthetics, in basics of anesthesia, Churchill-Livingstone, Oxford, UK.
Stoelting, RK 1999, ‘Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Injected and Inhaled Drugs’, Pharmacology and Physiology in Anesthetic Practice, vol. 3, pp. 1-17.
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