Essay on Membrane Ions And The Cell

Essay on Membrane Ions And The Cell

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Resting membrane potential is when the inside of the neuron is 70 mV less than the outside of the neuron when the cell is at rest. Resting membrane potential can be changed by two factors: differences in ionic composition of the intracellular and extracellular fluids and difference in permeability of ions in the plasma membrane (Marieb and Hoehn 397). Relatively, there are more sodium ions outside the cell than it is inside the cell and there are more potassium ions inside the cell than it is outside of the cell. When the cell is at rest, the membrane is slightly permeable to sodium, but is very permeable to potassium ions (Marieb and Hoehn 397). The potassium ions faster down their concentration gradients than sodium ions can even enter their concentration gradients (Marieb and Hoehn 397). The inside of the cell becomes more negative when potassium ions are flowing out of the cell. At resting membrane potential, the inside of the cell is negative due to the ability of potassium ions to diffuse out of the cell than for sodium ions to diffuse into the cell (Marieb and Hoehn 397).
The change in membrane potential produces two types of signals known as graded potentials and action potentials. Graded potentials and action potentials both can communicate signals and both potentials can involve depolarization and hyperpolarization. Depolarization is when the inside of the cell becomes less negative and hyperpolarization is when the cell becomes more negative and more farther away from 0mV.
In contrast, graded potentials are short-lived and localized but action potentials travel long distances along axons. The magnitude of graded potentials can change and the magnitude of action potentials is always the same regardless of the cell ty...

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...l spinothalamic tracts (Marieb and Hoehn 469). Information travels from the spine up to the thalamus within the diencephalon area of the brain. This pathway involves impulses for pain and temperature.
The spinocerebellar pathway conveys information about muscle or tendon stretch to the cerebellum and consists of ventral and dorsal spinocerebellar tracts (Marieb and Hoehn 469). The fibers of the spinocerebellar pathways do not decussate, which means to cross over. Descending pathways delivers efferent impulses from the brain to the spinal cord and is divided into two groups. One of the groups is direct pathways. Direct pathways originate mainly with the pyramid neurons located in the precentral gyri in the brain (Marieb and Hoehn 470). The lateral pyramidal (corticospinal) pathway is a direct pathway that controls skilled voluntary movements (Marieb and Hoehn 472).

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