However, it does not mean that these circumstances are unescapable. In fact, what this points us is the need for Filipino community organizations to create youth programs that explore and reconstruct the Filipino identity and their transnational connection to the homeland that will positively engage Filipino youth to gain self-confidence, self-esteem, and educational aspiration. If policies of labour export and the TFWs are there to stay, then at least Filipino organizations can wrestle issues that are manageable to change such as identity issues. In fact, organizations like the Kapisanan Centre for Philippine Arts and Culture in Toronto, Aksyon Ng Ating Kabataan (ANAK, or Filipino Youth in Action) in Winnipeg, and Tuluyan (The Bidge) in Vancouver explore their Filipino identity in Canada through a positive interaction with the Philippines.
I argue, however, that these community organizations also need to help Filipino youth, specially ...
... middle of paper ...
...aldine Pratt’s study, findings in Toronto and the Ontario province through Philip Kelly’s study, and my own ethnographic study of Filipino nursing students in Montreal. Filipino youth social mobility in Winnipeg and Edmonton, other major Canadian cities where Filipino reside, should be studied.
Future Research should focus on the educational attainment of Filipino youth in Montreal and in Quebec particularly because newly arrived youth face twice the hardship of learning French and integrating themselves to the society. Scholars should also look at the role of Filipino community organizations in helping Filipino youth who are at risk to experience low educational attainment. This will hopefully reveal how youth are not constrained by their mothers’ migration trajectories through the LCP alone, but they are themselves agents of their own development.
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