5. Inductive risk is the risk of error. More specifically, it is the possibility of wrongly accepting a false hypothesis or falsely rejecting a correct hypothesis. For example, there is a new cancer drug on the market. There are two types of inductive risk in this scenario. The first, is that scientists presume that it is a safe, effective treatment when it is not, so it stays in the market. The second scenario is that scientists believe this treatment is ineffective and so it is pulled from the market, even though it is actually effective and could cure the cancer. When evaluating inductive risk, it is imperative to evaluate all possible consequences of various solutions before reaching a decision.
In Douglas’ article, she argues that “non-epistemic values are a required part of the internal aspects of scientific reasoning for cases where inductive risk includes risk of non-epistemic consequences (Douglas, p. 559). She continues on to explain the foundation for the term inductive risk, and how it came about. “Inductive risk, a term first used by Hempel [in 1965, it] is the chance that one will be wrong in accepting (or rejecting) a scientific hypothesis” (Douglas, p. 561). Apparently, traditional philosophers contend the values act as a precursor to scientific arguments. However, Hempel believed that these values should not and do not have any logical say in backing up any scientific statement. Hempel contends that “judgments of value lack "all logical relevance to the proposed hypothesis since they can contribute neither to its support nor to its disconfirmation” (Douglas, p. 561). Although, Hempel does believe that there some role that values play in the field of science, especially in regards to the scientific method. Do...
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...stice to their fellow men. Humans are able of acquiring and critically analyzing vast amounts of knowledge. However, biases can hinder one’s ability to do so. Whether one has a tendency to listen and agree with individuals whom one admires or agrees with, or one 's prejudice, these factors influence our ability to think critically for ourselves and do what we cognitively deem to be right.
In order to acquire the testimonial sensibility to avoid testimonial injustice, people need to become aware of what hinders them to think critically. Furthermore, individuals must be able to see where not thinking critically does more harm than good. Throughout time, this has not changed. Whether it be the example I proposed in this essay, or one of the two examples Fricker explained in hers, these issues need to be addressed in order for testimonial injustice to not linger.
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