Diagram of Na against Cl- and Na/Cl ratio against EC (Fig. 4a and b) demonstrates that evaporation is the main process that controls the water chemistry. Na+ and Cl– fluctuated sharply while unchanged ratio of Na/Cl (Fig. 4a) suggests that the minerals precipitation is due to evaporation process. Also, this indicates that Na+ and Cl− are derived from the same source (Singh et al., 2007). Fig. 4b shows the Na/Cl ratio against EC, it has almost a linear relationship with very little inclination. This suggests that the high concentration of Na+ especially in the drains not only resulted from evaporation process, but also due to the effect of the land drainage and seepage from agriculture wastes. Sodium sources are NaNO3 fertilizers, beside the human activities and domestic wastes (Reddy 2010).
Fig 4(a) Relation between Na+ (meq/l) and Cl+ (meq/l). (b) Relation between Na+/Cl+ versus EC (μS/cm)
The surface water is contaminated by agricultural and industrial sewage. It is considered to be unsuitable for drinking and fishing specially El Rahawy drain. Thus this water requires a specific treatment.
3.2.2 Cation-exchange reaction
Distribution of ions in the water is controlled by the most significant geochemical reactions which is cation exchange reactions. The excess of Ca2+ related to Na+ can be recognized of cation exchange reaction. Fig .5a shows the decreasing in the Ca2+ cations compared to Na+ cations. This indicates that the cation exchange reaction takes place in the water (Singh et al., 2005). Also, the relation between Na+ and Cl- can be recognized as cation exchange reaction, which is one source of increasing Na+. (Kumar et al.,...
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...everely contaminated irrigation drains could relieve the problem of salinity concentration. Therefore, constant monitoring of the water quality of Nile is required to notice any change in the quality and reduce outbreaks of health disorders. Also, it will decrease the harmful influences on the aquatic ecosystem especially after decreasing the water level due to Ethiopia dam. The surface water is contaminated by agricultural and industrial sewage and it is considered to be unsuitable for drinking and fishing specially El Rahawy drain. The Rosetta branch is dominated by HCO3- anions. Hydrochemical reaction modeling shows that the cation exchange process and evaporation processes are the domain processes determine the water chemistry in the study area. The water types of the drains are resulted different of contamination source under various physico-chemical processes.
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