In 1286, by the time he was about sixteen, Wallace may have been preparing to pursue a life in the church. In that year, Alexander III died after riding off a cliff during a wild storm. None of Alexander III's children survived him. After his death, his young granddaughter, Margaret, the 'Maid of Norway', was declared Queen of Scotland by the Scottish lords, but was still only a little girl of 4 who was living in Norway. An interim Scottish government run by 'guardians' was set up to govern until Margaret was old enough to take up the throne. However, Edward I of England took advantage of the uncertainty and potential instability over the Scottish succession. He agreed with the guardians that Margaret should marry his son and heir Edward of Caernarvon (afterwards Edward II of England), on the understanding that Scotland would be preserved as a separate nation.
Margaret fell ill and died unexpectedly in 1290 at the age of 8 in the Orkney Islands on her way from Norway to England. 13 claimants to the Scottish throne came forward, most of whom were from the Scottish nobility.
Scotland was essentially occupied by the English at this time, and was beset by its own internal conflicts. The various aristocratic Scottish guardians of the throne plotted against one another, variously aligning themselves with King Edward or defying their loyalty to him when it suited them. At the same time English troops, including mercenaries and frequently disgruntled Welsh and Irish conscripts, operated freely throughout Scotland from stockaded camps and fortified garrisons. Civilian life was precarious, and abuses by the occupiers against the common people were rife. The Scottish nobles did little to maintain the rule of law and protect Scots from atrocities.
In this climate of lawlessness, William Wallace's father was killed in a skirmish with English troops in 1291. It is likely that the death of his father at the hands of the English contributed to Wallace's lifelong desire to fight for his nation's independence. However, little is known about Wallace's life during this period, except that he lived the life of an outlaw, moving constantly to avoid the English, and occasionally confronting them with characteristic ferocity.
Carrick's describes Wallace's skills as a warrior:
"All powerful as a swordsman and unrivalled as an archer, his blows were fatal and his shafts unerring: as an equestrian, he was a model of dexterity and grace; while the hardships he experienced in his youth made him view with indifference the severest privations incident to a military life.
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John Locke was an English philosopher who lived during 1632-1704. In political theory he was equally influential. Contradicting Hobbes, Locke maintained that the original state of nature was happy and characterized by reason and tolerance; all human beings were equal and free to pursue "life, health, liberty, and possessions." The state formed by the social contract was guided by the natural law, which guaranteed those inalienable rights. He set down the policy of checks and balances later followed in the U.S. Constitution; formulated the doctrine that revolution in some circumstances is not only a right but an obligation; and argued for broad religious freedom.
Locke used the arguments that a government is nothing if it is not supported by the power of its citizens. He argued that the citizens of the government were not well represented in the government so it was justified to be overthrown. This is what he thought about the overthrowing of King James of England in 1688. Locke argued that if the people in a country were to dissolve then the government in that country will also dissolve. He saw a country as a big group of people with similar views. He talks about how society decides to act as a whole group. When they split apart is when society becomes different groups and the government then falls. Many colonists were from England and witnessed or knew about the Glorious revolution and felt like they were mistreated the same way the people of England did at that time. Locke’s ideas played a major role in influencing the colonists to realize they were not being treated fairly and they had a right to fight for freedom to create their own
Jefferson’s language in the Declaration of Independence shows clear influence from Locke and his theory of Life, Liberty, and Property. Locke’s idea of government is one that sets out to protect these rights and once a government becomes more destructive than useful it is the right of the people to dissolve the government and start over from scratch. It can be seen that Jefferson’s view of government, through his criticisms toward the British Parliament, are in direct alignment with Locke’s.
When William came back from France, he found that his parents had died at the hands of the English army, and that made him extremely angry and vengeful. Whether or not he had a wife, or if the wife was attacked by English is questionable, but what does seem to be true is that the English soldiers were raping the Scottish women. The idea was to get more English blood into the country, but resulting in English babies.
John Locke, one of the leading philosophers of the European Enlightenment was very important when it came to political thought in the United States. His ideas of the reasons, nature, and limits of the government became especially important in the development of the Constitution. In one of his most famous writings of that time, Two Treatises on Government (1689), Locke established a theory where personal liberty could coexist with political power ; meaning that the people would agree to obey the government and in return, the government would have the responsibility of respecting the people’s natural rights. In other words, he laid out a social contract theory that provided the philosophy and source of a governing author...
...ituted Locke’s ideas into the American system of government. They sought to uphold equality, govern by consent, and protect the rights of man. In doing so, the Founders established a government that operates within the bounds of reason and nature. That government stands today as the United States of America, in part to John Locke, the philosopher.
Forward thinking John Locke described the government’s purpose in his Second Treatise on government. To this great thinker, political power is “a right of making laws…only for the public good” (Locke). This idea of organization is key to liberty. Government is made to protect the rights of a free person, not to remove or tarnish them. Thus, it is the type...
Locke talked about how people have the right to overthrow and unjust government and Jefferson also had this concept in the writing of the Declaration. The Declaration was created to explain why the colonies wanted independence from the British. The similarity between both the arguments is that Jefferson wanted to separate from a government that treated the people poorly “to dissolve the political bands” (Constitution) and Locke had the same idea that people need to get rid of the corrupt government. In the second part of the Declaration, Locke’s influence can be further seen when Jefferson states that “all men are created equal.” There is also another similarity between both the documents as Jefferson explains in the Declaration that all men have the rights to “Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.” Locke also emphasized this point except Locke believed that all men have the rights to life, liberty and property. Locke wrote earlier that revolutions are rare because most times the people do not feel that the government is abusing the power too much. However, in this case Jefferson explained that the rule of the British had a “history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States” (Constitution). In Locke’s writing he also explained that tyrants only care about their own needs and do not provide for the society. Therefore, Jefferson and the Americans had the right to overthrow the government because the government did not provide for the governed. Jefferson wrote a list of charges against the British rule to influence Americans into revolting. One of charges that Jefferson makes is that the King “has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good” (Constitution). This is important because Locke stated in his article explained
John Locke is considered to be one of the most prominent philosophical & political figures of the era known as the Enlightenment because of his immense contributions to modern-day government. Locke’s beliefs & radical views on how government should serve are expressed through much of his writings. He believed that the government has a moral obligation to serve its people through protecting their natural rights of Life, Liberty, & Property. The beliefs stated in his works contributed to much of the U.S. Declaration of Independence. John Locke played the greatest role in shaping modern-day government through his beliefs & contributions that laid the foundation for our current political system & constitution.
He wanted the government to protect individual rights and liberties. If the government did not protect them people could rebel against the government. He “believed that people were entitled to unalienable rights: life, liberty, and property.” (Khatri 2016) Locke wanted the people to be treated equally to one another. He also wanted to white males to own their own property. All Locke wanted was to have a good government and not have people rebel against the government
John Locke is considered one of the best political minds of his time. The modern conception of western democracy and government can be attributed to his writing the Second Treatise of Government. John Locke championed many political notions that both liberals and conservatives hold close to their ideologies. He argues that political power should not be concentrated to one specific branch, and that there should be multiple branches in government. In addition to, the need for the government to run by the majority of the population through choosing leaders, at a time where the popular thing was to be under the rule of a monarch. But despite all of his political idea, one thing was extremely evident in his writing. This was that he preferred limited
A few examples of the similarities of the Declaration and Locke’s Second Treatise of Government will suffice, in order to show Locke’s importance. Some of the most important phrases of the Declaration seem to be Locke’s phrases. Thomas Jefferson wrote in the Declaration, after declaring the purpose of government and if it fails to fulfill its purposes, that “it is the right of the People to alter or abolish it,” form a new one in such a way that will “effect their safety and happiness.” Locke declared about governmental purposes that “whenever that end is manifestly neglected, or opposed, the trust must necessarily be forfeited, and the power devolve into the hands of those that gave it, who may place it anew where they shall think best for their safety and security” (Locke 1690, Ch. XIII, P.149).