Again during 1945, the Vietnamese fought against Japanese rule and were victorious only to be reoccupied by France soon after. But During the Indochina War, Vietnam's Viet Minh rebels forced the French to surrender in the Battle of Dien Bien Phu finally gaining independence in 1954. 2. The Vietnamese War 1954-1975: After the French were forced to surrender, Ho Chi Minh, the leader of the north, wanted to create a communist Vietnamese country. Minh started with a campaign of harsh terrorism against South Vietnam trying to force them into joining the communist north.
From the 1880s until World War II (1939-1945), France governed Vietnam as part of French Indochina. (Indochina also included Cambodia and Laos, and was ruled by the emperor Bao Dai). During this time, the nations of Indochina fought for their sovereignty. In 1940, the Japanese troops invaded and occupied French Indochina, (causing the United States to step in and demand Japan to leave). In December of that year, Vietnamese nationalists established the League for the Independence of Vietnam, (or Viet Minh), “using the turmoil of the war as an opportunity for resistance to French colonial rule” (Nixon, 24).
Some Vietnamese adapted to the French way of life and worked with the French government to control the 30 million people living in Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos, an area that France now called Indochina. In September 1940, during the Second World War the Japanese army invaded Indochina. With Paris already occupied by Germany, the French troops decided they were unable to protect their empire so they surrendered to the Japanese, who took control of all Vietnams resources. During the war a strong resistance movement known as the Vietnam revolutionary league (Vietminh) was set up under the leadership of Ho Chi Minh. In 1930 he founded the Indochinese Communist Party, which inspired the Vietnamese to fight for an independent Vietnam without the French.
Ho Chi Minh was a communist, Vietnamese leader who was ready to lead Johnson 2 Vietnam against Japan, French and Americans. The First Indochina war erupted and the Vietnamese were victorious against the French. Initially, the French and the US agreed via. N.A.T.O, to keep the Chinese communist from taking over, and wanted to gain control over Vietnam to not spread communism past any other borders, and potentially the world. In retrospect, well after WWII, the United States had feared that there would be a WWIII.
America's Role in the Vietnam War Before the 2nd World War, Vietnam was a colony of France. During the war, French Indo China was occupied by the Japanese. When the war was over, the French took the place of the Japanese in Vietnam. In the period between 1945 and 1954 there was a struggle for independence headed by the communist Vietminh, headed by Ho Chi Minh, against the French rulers of Indochina. In August 1945 Vietminh guerrillas seized the capital city of Hanoi.
But in 1945 the French arrived back in Vietnam wanting their Colony back. The Vietminh started a guerrilla campaign against the French in 1946. The Americans were actually sympathetic to the Viet Mihn but that all changed when the communists took over in China and started giving help to Ho Chi Mihn. They now saw Vietnam as a puppet of China and feared communists ruling the whole of South- East Asia. This was a big turning point in the war because even though the Americans did not agree with the French, they gave the French $500 million a year towards the war effort to stop the communists taking control of North Vietnam.
Why the United States Became Increasingly Involved in the War in Vietnam The Vietnam conflict originated from a struggle against the colonial rule from France. Vietnam, previously known as Indochina, had been part of the French empire up until 1940, when France was defeated in the Second World War by Germany. During the German occupation of France, Japan seized control of Vietnam and it’s main resources like coal, rice and rubber. While the war was still being fought however, a strong anti-Japanese movement known as the Viet Minh emerged under the leadership of Communist Ho Chi Minh. This group fought against Japanese rule, and by the end of the Second World War, had successfully taken control of North Vietnam while still determined to declare Vietnamese independence across the whole country.
North Vietnam was to be under Chinese control, and the South would be under British control. However, in 1946 it was agreed that the French would be allowed to take over again. This led to a guerrilla war started by the Vietminh, against the French. The French were struggling to win this war, and found it even more difficult in 1949 when the Chinese decided to help the Vietminh after becoming communist under Mao Zedong, after the USA had spent $2 billion dollars supporting anti-communists. This was also the year in which the USSR exploded its own atom bomb, which meant the USA was no longer the only nuclear power.
In 1949 Mao Zedongs' communists seized power in China and began training Vietnamese guerrillas and supplying them with modern weapons. This placed extra pressure on the USA to help the French in the fight against the spread of communism, even ... ... middle of paper ... ...ng for reinforcements to arrive. They were also hoping that the South Vietnamese people would rise up with them, overthrow the South Vietnamese government and force the US out of South Vietnam. However, the US troops and ARVN fought back and defeated the Tet offensive. From every point I have managed to translate in this essay, it would appear that the USA was increasingly involved in the conflict in Vietnam.
Ho Chi Minh led the war against France and was victorious. After the war, at the Geneva Conference of 1954, Vietnam was divided into two parts along the seventeenth parallel. North Vietnam was mostly Communist and supported Ho Chi Minh, while South Vietnam was anti-communist and supported by the United States and France. There were still some Communist rebels remaining within South Vietnam, they were known as the Viet Cong. The ruler at the time of South Vietnam was Ngo Dinh Diem who was anti-Communist.