Continental Drift, the theory that continents move slowly about the earth's surface, changing their positions relative to one another and to the poles of the earth. In the past the theory has been discussed but not generally accepted, most geologists believing the continents to be fixed in place and subject only to vertical movements, such as those observed during mountain uplift. In recent years, however, a sound body of evidence in support of a modified form of the drift theory has been found. Ideas are becoming precise and unified, with emphasis on a moving, evolving ocean floor. The new theory is called plate tectonics.
To support the theory of continental drift is through topography, surveying the floors of oceans, charts of rock magnetism, and statistics on rock ages (Trefil & Hazen, 2010). At one time scientist believed that the deep ocean floors were flat; accumulating the sediment that progressively wore away from the prehistoric landmasses (Trefil & Hazen, 2010). However, they discovered steep-walled valleys and elevated highlands. This was evidences that just as the continents are transformed and are active, so to is the seafloor (Trefil & Hazen, 2010). The Mid- Atlantic Ridge, positioned in the central part of the Atlantic Ocean, is recorded to be the longest mountain range on this planet.
Suess also believed that the earth was made up of a large continuous crust, b... ... middle of paper ... ...e hypothesis holding much promise at the time. With our increased knowledge of the ocean floor configuration and the concepts of seafloor spreading, it has supplied us with evidence for continental drift. The plate tectonics theory came to a gradual acceptance through the evolution of scientific thought and acceptance whereby the idea of mobile continents increased understanding of earthquakes and thus technology to minimise the effects. It was clear that as Wegener had put forward his theories, most of the geologists had deferred his statements calling them vulnerable as his commitment and dedication had somehow prevented him from accepting the impossibility of his thoughts (Lake 1923). However it was his persistence that had encouraged the birth of Plate Tectonics, embracing both continental drift and seafloor spreading.
The subduction zone between Gondwana and Euramerica set a major collision in motion that would later bring the two continents together to form the massive single continent, Pangaea (Rice). In addition to ample global shifts, many important regional activities occurred. The continents of North America and Europe collided, resulting in massive granite formations as well as the formation of the Appalachian Mountains located on the eastern side of the North American continent. Extensive reef building produced some of the world's largest reef complexes (“More Info about the Devonian World”). These reefs were built in the equatorial seas between the two preexisting cont... ... middle of paper ... ...oreinfo5.htm Rice, Stanley A.
The mantle convection involves the large convection currents of molten material in the Earth's upper mantle. As these currents pass on the energy to the Earth's asthenosphere (the ... ... middle of paper ... ... matter of minutes without quickly consuming that tropical it had eaten, and this evidence proves that the north pole was once a tropical region. Overall review on the research agrees that the bible has supporting evidence that indeed there was once a shift in the tectonic plate movements, as pointed out in the points above however we cannot ignore the fact that not everything geographical worked hand in hand within the discoveries some of the unexplainable events like the great flood. It is still geographically unexplainable and it remains a mystery yet to be resolved. References • Modern technologies and sciences in the bible – Allen Peace and John Anderson • Physical geography.
The second was that organisms were designed especially for certain habitats and appeared on the earth in their present form. After reading the works of a noted geologist, Darwin began to change his ideas. He saw evidence that the earth was much older than 6,000 years. In South America, he was witness to an earthquake that lifted the land several feet. He realized that mountains could be built by the action of an earthquake over millions of years.
Galapagos. Smithsonian Institution UC BERKELEY. (n.d.). plate tectonics: history of an idea. Retrieved February 25, 2010, from http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/geology/techist.html.
(Rejoined continents [This Dynamic Earth, USGS].) Not only fossil proves this theory, but also same living animals are found on two different continents. Furthermore, Wegener found out that same rocks and mountain ranges begin on one continent, and end at one coastline; but on another continent cross the ocean, there are similar rocks and mountain ranges appear. For instance, people found rocks with same types and rocks in Greenland, Ireland, Scotland, and Norway which are places really far away from each other. Last but not least, base on climatic evidence, scientists later pointed out that there are glacial striations in South America, Africa, Madagascar, Arabia, India, Anta... ... middle of paper ... ... at hot spots rather than plate boundaries.
Plate Tectonics Plate tectonics are a relatively new theory that has revolutionized the way geologists think about the Earth. According to the theory, the surface of the Earth is broken into large plates. The size and position of these plates change over time. The hypothesis of continental drift was largely developed by the German Alfred Wegener The edges of these plates, where they move against each other, are sites of intense geologic activity, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and mountain building. Plate tectonics is a combination of two earlier ideas, continental drift and sea-floor spreading.
Plate Tectonics has a significant effect on all fields of geology because it helps explain many geological phenomenons. Figure1. Earth Plate 2.0 History Way back to 1915, scientist Alfred Wegener proposed his theory of “Continental Drift”, which clarified that the continents plowed through crust of ocean basin s. It helped explain why the outlines of many coast lines, such as South America and Africa looked like a puzzle when they fitted together. However, Wegner’s theory was controversial because it lacked of explanation of why continents moved. In 1929, Arthur Holmes elaborated on one of Wegner’s hypotheses: the mangle undergoes thermal convection.