Parents who abuse are people who have been abused and neglected themselves as children(Long Term Consequences). There are links between neglect and abuse and later psychological, emotional, behavioral, and interpersonal disorders. The basis for this linkage is the impact that abuse and neglect have on brain development. Researchers have found important links between interpersonal experiences and neurobiological development. Children who have been sexually abused are at significant risk of developing anxiety disorders (2.0 times the average), major depressive disorders (3.4 times average), alcohol abuse (2.5 times average), drug abuse (3.8 times average), and anti-social behavior (4.3 times average)(Crouch).
Child physical abuse has been associated with increased risk for symptoms of depression and anxiety in clinical research (Schneider). Children who are physically abused can often abuse their own children. Kids that are exposed to abuse often experience more than one type of abuse. More than half of the sample with SMI was identified to have one or more types of child abuse history (Choi). An abused child may experience hitting, kicking, biting, smacking, jerking, suffocating, burning and choking.
Many do not heal without years of therapy from a traumatic experience. According to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, an estimated 777,200 children were determined to be victims of abuse or neglect by a protective service agency in the United States in 2008, and 9.1% of these children were determined to have been sexually abused (Draucker, 2011). Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a prevalent problem in the United States that is associated with many long term psychological, behavioral, social and physical effects on men and women (Draucker, 2011). These effects can make a person’s life a living hell. They turn someone into a person that they may not have been if the tragic event didn’t happen to them.
Some can overcome the issues after a short period of time, but for others it may take a lifetime. Results of individual cases vary widely and are affected by a combination of factors such as age of the child, developmental status, type of abuse, duration, and relationship between the victim and the abuse (Child Welfare Information Gateway, 2008). The damage of physical abuse is not only on the outside but it affects the psychological well being of the victim. Many studies have been done looking at the different psychological outcomes after abuse. In Starr and Wolfe’s book The Effects of Child Abuse and Neglect (1991), they discuss the developmental outcomes of child maltreatment in a life span.
The use of these defense mechanisms short-term may serve as a protective barrier for the psyche and decrease the damaging effects of trauma. But long-term use will consequently lead to internal confusion and conflict (Hosier 1). Many children learn to use multiple defense mechanisms interchangeably to cope with complex trauma throughout their childhood. Moreover, Complex trauma is a leading factor in many health issues and diagnoses such as ADHD, ADD, Anxiety disorder, Borderline disorder, depression, bipolar, and PTSD. The list of possible diagnoses is endless, and finding proper treatment is a struggle.
Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 19(1), 1-4. doi:10.1080/10926770903486007 Shapero, B., Black, S., Liu, R., Klugman, J., Bender, R., Abramson, L., & Alloy, L. (2014). Stressful life events and depression symptoms: The effect of childhood emotional abuse on stress reactivity. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 70(3), 209-223. doi:10.1002/jclp.22011 Slep, A. M. S., Heyman, R. E., & Snarr, J. D. (2011). Child emotional aggression and abuse: Definitions and prevalence. Child Abuse & Neglect, 35(10), 783.
Aggression and Violent Beahvior, 13, 131-140. Herrenkohl, T. I., Sousa, C., Tajima, E. A., Herremkohl, R. C., & Moylan, C. A. (2008). Intersection of child abuse and children's exposure to domestic violence. Trauma, Violence, and Abuse, 9(84), 84-99.
According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 3.3 million referrals for alleged maltreatment were made in 2013. Out of the 3.3 million referrals, 899,000 children were officially documented as being maltreated(Child Abuse & Neglect 2015). Child abuse is the mistreatment of a child. Child abuse is recognized in several forms; physical, emotional, sexual and neglect. Children who experience any form of abuse will tend to withdraw themselves from their peers and sometimes from other family members who are not aware of what is taking place.
The child behavior checklist as an indicator of posttraumatic stress disorder and dissociation in normative, psyhiatric, and sexually abused children. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18, 697-705. Retrieved from www.ebscohost.com Vandenberg, B., & Marsh, U. (2009). Aggression in youths: child abuse, gender, and SES.
Self Esteem Damages in Abuse Children. Retrieved July 14, 2012, from http://krillco.hubpages.com/hub/Self-Esteem-Damages-in-Abused-Children Rogers, V. (2010, July 12). Abuse/Survivors of Abuse. Retrieved from Good Therapy: http://www.goodtherapy.org/therapy-for-abuse.html Roy, L. H. (2012, March 30). Reactive Attachment Disorder.