(Maguire, Morgan and Reiner, 2012) Wilson and Kelling argued that if behaviour such as graffiti, rowdy behaviour, drunkenness and vandalism is un-tackled this can turn stable neighbourhoods into broken down neighbourhoods with fears of crime. They further argued that behaviour that is left unchecked likewise properties can lead to a breakdown of community control. This is because bad manners causes fear which leads to avoidance and some residence moving away, this promotes informal social control that paves the way for more extreme types of violent behaviour and crime. To stop the breakdown of community control, Wilson and Kelling proposed that any unfavourable act should be tackled immediate. If not, this leads the way for individuals to push the boundary and attempt more serious crimes.
According to international standards, sentencing an individual who is below 18 years of age is against the law (Steinberg and Scott 56). According to International standards, children who are still developing do not have the same level of culpability as adults. However, the United stated violates these standards by treating young offenders as adults. Mainly, incarceration is used to correct individuals or ensure the security of the society by removing criminals who are a threat from the society. For the case of children, the main aim should be to help them reintegrate into the society.
Alfred Adler believed that children who failed to solve the vital problem of social interest-who lack cooperation and a desire for contributing to the well-being of others-will always meet significant problems later, during their adult years (Adler, 1998). This could include personality problems or criminal behavior. Personality develops early in life. That is why early childhood aggression and antisocial behavior should be taken seriously. Being able to identify potential criminal behavior is vital for prevention and intervention.
For example the invasion of the House of Commons, would be a warning device to society relating to security issues. Durkheim argues that some crime is inevitable, but only in some societies, the crime rate may become too much and, this indicates a society that is intolerable, which means that it is suffering from social disorganisation. However, Durkheim does not provide any indication of what a 'normal' crime rate might be. While regarding a certain rate of crime as a normal unavoidable feature of society, also Durkheim was aware that particular societies might be in a suffering condition, which generates excessive deviance. This leads into the area of anomie and the work of Robert Merton.
The first idea of nurture is the sociological side. Criminology (2016) sees this as what was learned in the early life, the contact one has had with criminals, the failure to form strong emotional bonds, and juvenile delinquency. It is family environment that will greatly affect the likelihood of criminal behavior forming. Some of the risks that are included in risk factors for criminal behavior are poverty, education,
If you never saw a criminal you would less likely become a criminal. Dr. C.R Jeffery suggests (Jeffery, 1965) “the case of crimi... ... middle of paper ... ...hat is a choice he/she makes with the help of environment or people.” The Labeling theory is greatly debated; the offender can change if given the opportunity. It has to start after the first crime is committed. (Willam R. Downs, 1997)”Control theory implies that social services will decrease levels of deviant behavior by strengthening the bond between the adolescent and society. Labeling theory implies the reverse, that the process of formal adjudication through the juvenile court will first stabilize and then increase levels of deviant behavior.
In Sutherland’s Theory he explains how “A person becomes delinquent because of an... ... middle of paper ... ...study Barnes states, “f a parent acts in a negative way, the child is more likely to follow their parent’s negative attitude. They are also more likely to generalize this attitude to the rest of society. Thus, parents have much influence over their child’s behavior. From birth, a parent will mold and shape behaviors suitable to the norms of society through childrearing” (Analysis of Family Life). As you have read, the family is a huge part of a delinquent’s initial exposure to criminal activity and favorable definition of crime.
For Gottfredson and Hirsch’s definition of crime, they state that a crime is an act undertaken in a person’s pursuits of self-interests. People that are involved in criminal acts in this theory are also prone to impulsive behaviors that provide some form of short term gratification. These impulsive behaviors include speeding, drinking and gambling. Due to the statistics that a path toward or away from crime commences early in life, Gottfredson and Hirsch contended further that the level of self-control is dependent on the quality of upbringing from parents at an early age. This theory goes on to state that parenting is the most important factor in determining a person’s self-control.
Another area to be considered within the historical context of holding parents responsible will be the idea that crime runs in families and so if a child is exposed to criminal activity when growing up, they will turn to criminal activity when they are older. Other matters to be deliberated are problems with child rearing methods as researched by Carpenter (1853) which will be compared to McCord’s (1979) theory of the same idea. Burt’s (1925) ‘The Young Delinquent’ will also be examined as will Bowlby’s popular theory in 1944 that parental conflict and disrupted families cause delinquency. The second area will be the theoretical context of criminalizing motherhood including communitarianism which emphasises that ‘rights come with responsibilities’. The risk agenda shall also be explored which is a risk m... ... middle of paper ... ...(Maguire, 2002).
When it comes to lifestyle, and the victim is a child growing up in a bad area of the city, the only thing someone can do is help make them understand that it’s not safe for that child to be raised in an area that has a high crime rate because in this case they will become the predator and not the victim. On the bright side, victimologists that study all the areas and theories in victimization have laid out the facts of what people need to look for, so they can’t become a victim of routine activities theory and even chronic victimization or lifestyle victimization. Together in the United States, there is a way to stop victimization, but that must be done as a country and not just as an individual. So with that being said, it can take one person to change another person, but it will take a country to stop a dozen or more