Whereas conflict theorists believe that a society’s inequalities are reproduced in its definitions of deviance, so that less powerful groups are more likely to be deemed deviant and criminalized. In Merton’s structural strain theory claims that the tension or strain among socially acceptable... ... middle of paper ... ...ead to these patterns of criminal behavior. There is an ongoing debate about the role of punishment in the criminal justice system, a collection of social institutions that create and enforce laws. Deterrence is a method to punish that depend on the threat of a strict penalty to discourage individuals from committing the crimes. Retribution is a method to punish that stresses vengeance or payback for the crime as the suitable goal.
I believe that the labeling theory is the better then the social control theory about explain the various types of crimes that people commit, by the following examples. “The labeling theory has become part of many criminological theory of sanctions that includes deterrence theory’s focus on the crime reduction possibilities of sanctions, procedural justice theory’s focus on the importance of the manner in which sanctions are imposed, and defiance/reintegrated theory’s emphasis on individual differences in the social bond and persons’ emotional reaction to that label (Paternoster, R,
Crimes are 'social facts' and therefore must have 'social causes'. Criminals are not seen as 'abnormal' individuals by subcultural theorists, but as social actors influenced by social causes. Statistics have indicated that criminals are mostly male, adolescent, working class and urban living. An idea inspired by Durkhiem (1952) suggested that this is a 'socia... ... middle of paper ... ...s as it gives evidence to support their idea that working class people commit more crimes than middle class males. On the other hand, criminal statistics was challenged by left realists who believe that criminal statistics is the reality and therefore we should accept it, along with the solutions to attempt to solve the problems to tackle the high levels of crime.
This leads into the area of anomie and the work of Robert Merton. Durkheim argues that crime can have a positively beneficial role in social evolution. Individuals, who anticipate necessary adjustments of social morality to changing conditions, may be stigmatised as criminals at first. Despite Durkheim’s views, he does not explain why certain people are more likely to commit crimes than others are; he is more interested in the relationship between deviance and order in society. Along with Durkheim, Merton argues that deviant behaviour is functional.
Criminologists can’t do much more than finding these social flaws if the government does not collaborate. This model can also help explain a lot of violence and a root cause of many crimes. 4. Consensus model The Consensus model emphasizes that the social is through the shared norms and it’s based on the cooperation of groups to produce justice instead of competition. It is a system of enforcement to which everyone in the groups subscribe.
Who determines what actions are punishable and what actions are not? Also if the same act is committed in one society and is punishable, could it be committed in another society and not be punishable? Though there is a worldwide understanding of severe crime commitment and its punishments, including theft, murder, or abuse. I would like to convey a point through numerous examples and research that in many cases certain crimes are committed in good faith. Moreover this paper will also show the different theoretical justifications behind criminal acts.
Strain theories of criminal behaviour have been amongst the most important and influential in the field of criminology. Taking a societal approach, strain theories have sought to explain deficiencies in social structure that lead individuals to commit crime (Williams and McShane 2010). Strain theories operate under the premise that there is a societal consensus of values, beliefs, and goals with legitimate methods for achieving success. When individuals are denied access to legitimate methods for achieving success, the result is anomie or social strain. This often leads an individual to resort to deviant or criminal means to obtain the level of success that they are socialized to pursue.
It has be to acknowledged that “ class or organizational position are consequential and play a more complex role in creating opportunities for wrongdoing and in shaping and frustrating the social control process than traditional stereotypes have allowed” (Shapiro, S. P.). The opportunities to partake in white-collar crime and violate the trust in which ones position carries are more dependent upon the individuals place in society, not just the work place. The ways in which white-collar criminals establish and exploit trust are an important factor in truly exploring and defining the concept of white-collar crime. There is a myth that there is great tolerance towards the existence of white collar crime, but this is not true. It
The assumption that understanding criminal behaviour is the most important tool we have to combat the incidence of crime has prompted many philosophers, jurists, psychologists, psychiatrists, socialists and others to seek a plausible explanation for the commission of crimes. Their methods are diverse, some employing scientific means and others using empirical evidence to explore why people engage in “deviant” activity. The most convincing of these theories are those which explain criminal behaviour by reference to the individual, such as the classical theory, which views criminal behaviour as being the free and rational choice of the individual. The theory then offers proportionate punishment as a means to discourage people from reoffending or to deter others from acting criminally. Whilst the theory is not without it flaws, it is difficult to disprove such a theory in the absence of establishing the offender was not capable of rational thought at the time of committing the offence.
Conclusion The Symbolic Interaction Theory is a theory that can best explain why crime occurs. When someone deviates from the path society had intrically paved, they are caste outside the majority and thus, given the label of criminal. It is through this push outside the group that a person is subjected to either accepting their label as a criminal or must fight their way back into the group through the means of policy implications like rehabilitation programs. Sadly, if the person does not successfully complete treatment, they will remain outside the group and will be forced to abide by their label as a criminal. This theory sums up the way society itself creates criminals therefore making it one of the most significant theories to explain crime in America.