preview

Traffic Congestion Essay

Satisfactory Essays
Small et al. (1997) provide a summary of theoretical on the review of congestion measures demonstrated at the outset of this project that a number of different approaches are used to quantify the level of congestion for an urban area. Although there are a number of different congestion measures, travel time measures offer the best means for estimating the economic impacts of the congestion. There are several reasons for this:
1. Travel time corresponds directly to the traveler’s experience of congestion, when measured from a given origin to destination;
2. As indicated below, efforts to estimate the direct user costs of congestion are based on placing a value on travel time, often as a percentage of the wage rate; and
3. Most traffic models produce estimates of speed and time for individual roadway segments and origin and destination zones. More sophisticated techniques allow for the calculation of travel times between specific, non-zonal locations on a transportation network

• Traffic congestion is defined as a condition of traffic delay (when the flow of traffic is slowed below reasonable speeds) because the number of vehicles trying to use the road exceeds the traffic network capacity to handle them.
• From a traffic point of view, congestion creates travel time delays and results in expenses for commuters and business travelers. There is significant literature on the measurement of congestion delays in Windhoek. From an economic point of view, congestion clearly causes house-holds and businesses to incur excess time and money costs. However, the current literature on the subject does not satisfactorily address these issues, nor has there been any real exploration of the true economic costs of urban road congestion

• The t...

... middle of paper ...

...o International Airport. Taxis and minibus services will also be considered in an integrated urban transport system as these services will provide complementary services to bus services, in particular in areas or times with insufficient demand for bus operation.
"Based on the analysis of deficiencies in the pedestrian and cycling infrastructure and the forecasted demand for non-motorised transport, areas of improvement will be identified. This might include pedestrian access to public transport, walkways in school areas, cycling lanes to connect neighbourhoods, overhead bridges at crossing points (e.g. on the Western Bypass) and others.
"A focus will be on the integration of non-motorised and public transport, allowing for walking and cycling as a mode of access to public transport. This includes facilities for storing of bicycles at public transport
Get Access