Automobile dependency is caused by underpricing and planning and investment practices by cities (Rodrique). Because the automobile is the most commonly used method of transportation, cities tend to allocate all the money for transportation to improve roads and parking areas for automobiles (Radziner). This causes funding for other transportation methods to be pushed to the side. Also, consumers do not bear the full price of driving automobiles because most road infrastructures are subsidized. This causes overuse and congestion.
There are also more accidents, because people become frustrated or angry due to the traffic jams. Pollution in the city center worsens as a result of car emissions, and the city becomes a less attractive place to live. Shops are forced to close in the city center and have to relocate to malls or to the outskirts of the city, where parking is available. METHODS TO REDUCE TRAFFIC CONGESTION: • Anti-idling solutions: Even in the slowest-moving traffic, drivers often have no alternative to idling engines, but when they are parked for rest stops or waiting at delivery locations, reducing the need for engine idling can lead to significant fuel savings. Purchasing direct-fired heaters and auxiliary power units can dramatically cut down the amount of fuel consumed when drivers are in their vehicles but not on the road.
This decreases congestion and the roads will be used for longer periods of time and will not be only focused at specific intervals resulting in high congestion... ... middle of paper ... ...ssageway for emergency vehicles as they cannot pass to reach victims in time. This has a negative impact on the economy as it may lead to death resulting in a decrease of the population size. -There could be increased chances of accidents/collisions which could have been prevented if the traffic stream was managed. This happens as drivers try to squeeze themselves into tight spots so as to move along and try not to get stuck in traffic. However there are not only negatives associated with traffic congestion for the economy, below follows a list of positives: -When roads are congested drivers are forced to drive slowly, this reduces the amount of accidents that are likely to occur.
Actually, sustainable development can partly solve the urbanization problems, for it can reduce the impact of the problems such as traffic jam, housing shortage and severe pollution, but it is difficult to completely solve these problems in a short time. Traffic jam Traffic jam is one of the most serious problems of urbanization, almost all the modern cities are facing different levels of traffic jam problems. In general, people can ease the traffic jam and not compromise the quality of life by a policy of sustainable development in two aspects including formulating a more efficient transport pattern and changing the urban construction. For formulating a more efficient transport pattern, there are some specific strategies. Firstly, government can encourage people to pay more attention to public transit.
Traffic congestion imposes costs to businesses beyond the mere vehicle and driver costs of delay, including potential effects on inventory costs, logistics costs, reliability costs, just-in-time processing costs and the reductions in market areas for workers, customers and incoming/ outgoing deliveries (NCHRP REPORT 463, 2010, p.10). Congestion is responsible for additional costs incurred by the business; this can be the cost of petrol which is wasted while standing still in traffic or moving at a slow pace, also a driver could take a longer route to avoid roads that are full but this leads to increased logistics costs as this routes were not originally state when plans to deliver goods were made. Extra cost incurred by the business are a serious problem as the firm uses scarce resources it did not budget for or resources that could have been used somewhere else to derive more profits for the business. Congestion also results in the late arrival of products and materials to be used in the business for production. If goods are delivered late the demand is likely to decrease as cons... ... middle of paper ... ...port due to congestion, the issue of congestion is also one that has to be solved by setting up several policies and control mechanisms such as charges which all require government funds which could have been used to help society in another way which could be more beneficial.
Of the year the number of vehicles is increasing. In urban communities prefer to use private vehicles to travel than by public transport. This is then further aggravate congestion in urban areas. Seventh attitude less disciplined and less responsible than the users of the road. For example, road users who break through signs traffic signs and public transport drivers were lower and raise the passengers own wishes.
Overpopulation leads to more vehicles being out on the road, thus more air pollution and harmful emissions from these cars. Urban sprawl moves some of these vehicles away from the tight confines of the city, to areas that have more room to take in these emissions. Furthermore, the more automobiles there are on the road the greater likeliness of wrecks and decreased public safety. Moving people outside the city does cause them to rely on the use of automobiles to get to work within the city, but it can promote the use
The idea of smart growth concentrates its development around compact walkable centers within urban areas. The purpose of this is to avoid the growing sprawl through the implementation of walkable, bicycle-friendly and alternative transportation like b... ... middle of paper ... ...uate personal motivation, however it is an issue that involves social and physical obstacles that must be overcome as well (Steinman, 2010). Environments that enhance walkability are typically associated with greater pedestrian traffic and lower body mass index (BMI). Neighborhood safety and traffic volumes and road speeds have been identified in the ACRES and other studies as determinants to a walk able neighborhood (Steinman, 2010, Wahlgren, 2011). Urban planners can address these issue in several different ways.
The level of car ownership and usage nowadays is unsustainable leading to polluted and unhealthy cities. Each of the mentioned concerns can be considered important to shift toward a more sustainable urban development. Spatial planning main purpose is to find ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions at the local, regional and national level. Although major countries, like UK, are directing transport policy initiatives toward usage of sustainable mobility, it is difficult to implement in practice in a society used to travel by car (Hutton, 2013). The existing city form and urban fabric have contributed to increased car usage.
It consists of fast vehicles as cars, other motorized vehicles and slow vehicles as bicycles. These vehicles widely differ in their physical, size, motive power, control and guidance system as well as performance capability. The difference in static and dynamic characteristics of different value affects the traffic flow. The Indian traffic characteristics are fundamentally different from those in developed countries, due to mixed traffic flow. This complex traffic scenario, prevailing particularly on urban roads in developing countries, poses a serious challenge to traffic planners and engineers who are on the lookout for suitable solutions.