Theories Of Second Language Acquisition

1111 Words5 Pages
Second Language Acquisition Theories (Summarization of Cummins’ and Krashen 's Theories and Implications to ELL)
 According to Cummins, the first type of communication is Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) and it pertains to the social development of a language which can normally be attained fairly quickly within the first few years of acquiring a new language. The social conversations are usually informal forms of communicating where individuals use this type of communicating when speaking or listening to another individual face to face where the vocabulary content is less difficult. The second type of communication is Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) and it pertains to the most complex conversations that…show more content…
CUP allows the student to transfer what they already know in their native language to the concepts presented in English therefore, allowing the student to understand the input of another language while still using their native language. Educators can assist an English Language Learner by using the Quadrant model devised by Cummins’ concerning the task difficulties according to context usage. The four sections are based on context reduction or context embedded combined with demanding or undemanding cognition. The student would benefit with context-embedded assignments that include visuals or oral clues more than just a context-reduced assignment where the student would just listen to a lecture without visual clues. The purpose of the Quadrant model is for teachers to commence assignments that are less demanding so that the student can build the confidence necessary to continue with assignments that are more demanding in the…show more content…
Language Acquisition, National Order Hypothesis, Input Hypothesis, Monitoring Hypothesis, and the Affective Filter Hypothesis. According to Krashen’s, language learning refers to a conscious effort to learn a new language while language acquisition is acquired through a subconscious level. The best example I have for understanding the language learning versus the language acquisition is through my personal experience. Before I entered elementary school, my first language acquisition was speaking Spanish because I was surrounded by family members and friends who communicated in Spanish only, and then when I entered the elementary school, I learned and acquired the English language through my social school environment and academic classes in English. I acquired the Spanish language subconsciously because it was a requirement for communicating with members of my family as well as my friends and the acquirement of the English language happened while communicating socially with friends at the school environment and finally I learned the English language through the educational academic classes taken while attending school through a conscious
Open Document