Even though, second language learners have those instilled variables, it is imperative for the teachers to guide learning and set the conditions of learning. Bilingual Children with Primary Language Impairment: Issues, Evidence, and Implications for Clinical Actions In the article, Bilingual Children with Primary Language Impairment: Issues, Evidence, and Implications for Clinical Actions, Kohner (2010) indicate numerous school districts that have implemented bilingual programs to help the English Language Learners. Dual language programs enhance student outcomes and close the achievement gap of Second Language Learners (Coyoca and Lee, 2009... ... middle of paper ... ... learners enjoy each others’ culture and life experiences as they relate to subject-areas (Nemeth, 2009). Conclusion The population of the United States increased with school age children speaking English as their second language. Strong community leaders and school districts are needed to ensure English language learners attend effective programs that teach them English and push them to graduate successfully (Buysse, Castro, and Peisner-Feinberg, 2010).
Given the positive effect of the interaction to the language proficiency, parents and teachers should apply the interaction skills in teaching the young children L2. Parents should pay attention to the use of open questions and take up different positions to stimulate communication with children, while the teachers should focus on creating a social interaction context to encourage verbal interaction of the children with teachers and their peers. However, due to the limitation of the author, the importance and methods of interaction may not be fully introduced. The present findings may also provide some advice for parents and teachers.
The stages are ordered from the low level to... ... middle of paper ... ...e goal of language acquisition. By allowing them to application in the lesson and active participation in the framework of the Group, OR individual effort and all this needs time in order to take advantage of using their English productively. Give ELLs opportunities to notice their errors and to correct in English. There is different ways to make learner correct his English. Like to provide him the correct form.
Teaching students with English as their second language comes with its own set of challenges. To effectively teach, I need to recognize what the students understand. Through my class Assessment for Learning I learned not all assessments yield similar information. Formative or informal assessments guide instruction because they provide a snapshot which identifies skills the student has mastered or that may require additional instruction. Summative or formal assessments are graded and measured to determine if a student mastered a benchmark or standard.
For teachers, non-linguistic cues or representations are an effective alternative method in the process of delivering language and content instruction. In this essay, I will discuss why non-linguistic representations work differently than linguistic methods. I will also evaluate selected Teachscape video to discuss how some teachers use these methods, tasks that allow English Language Learner students to develop authentic use of their new language, and the difference between a student-centered and a teacher-centered classroom. When a student learns a new concept, that information is stored in one of two ways - linguistically or non-linguistically. Traditional instructional methods present new concepts linguistically to students; in other words, by having them read and/or listen to the information they are expected to learn.
Both of these processes are necessary for a person to acquire a second language. Implications for teaching include creating authentic social interaction time with peers in the classroom, collaboration with peers, modeling appropriate language use and using repetition (Vose). Krashen’s Natural Order Hypothesis says that language learning follows a natural sequential and predictable order. As language builds upon itself, students will make predictable errors. As a teacher it is necessary to know the scope and sequence of L2 development (Freeman and Freeman p.63).
However, in practice, their students use "top-down" process to guess theme and then adopt "bottom-up" process to check their understanding. Therefore, English teachers should use both processes in listening activities to help their students can practice both of them: "bottom-up" and "top-down". Furthermore, the combination of "bottom-up" processing and "top-down" processing is also called "interactive" processing (Peterson, 2001). In the classrooms, all pre-listening activities are one of good methods to help students integrate "bottom-up" processing and "top-down" processing when listening. For example, before listening, teachers should provide a lesson on the specific topic to bring students' level of content schema which help students can better comprehend the target text.
This is usually used for ELLs who are in the beginning stage of English proficiency and finished by the time the students reach intermediate level (Wright, 2010, p. 82). One of popular instruction that Vygotsky came up is Scaffolding Instruction which is based on the idea at the beginning of learning where students need a great deal of support but this support is taken away to allow students to try their independence (Wright, 2010, p. 42). Using this strategy is when a student is having difficulty doing one task and teacher could use scaffolding by giving the student support system to help student experience success until they are able to do the task by themselves. Lastly is Cooperative Learning, this strategy is letting student learn to read, write and think by having them engage with other students, usually students are engage with their peers.
This essay will summarize the article important points along with my opinions and how might teachers apply such information from the principles of the article to their personal situations. The article Principles of Instructed Second Language Acquisition focuses on how instruction can facilitate language learning with teacher’s guidance in improving the instructed language acquisitions. The author exemplifies in his text ten specific principles that will guide a teacher in assisting students how to learn English as their second language. These principles are defined to assist the teacher in attaining information, not to directly advise teachers to follow these principles. Ellis (2008) states, the principles described in this digest, therefore, are intended to provide teachers with a basis for reflection and not as a set of prescriptions or proscriptions about how to teach (p. 1).
An example of an emotive role would be that of a friend or rival, a role that could potentially be sensitive or touchy. Finally, maturational would define those roles that we learn as we grow up or mature. Some examples of maturational roles are mother/daughter, adult/adult, or child/child. The author’s main point is that “We teachers should provide our students with enough English (a) to recognize the role-intentions of others, and (b) either to complement those roles or to counter them with personally-desired ones” There are many possible ways to incorporate these role-playing ideas into the classroom. One idea that came to mind would be to do what I call ‘ Script Mix Up’.