At the beginning, the height, and the depression of the women’s liberation movement and the past feminism of the 1970’s-1990’s, Lerner was present through the most radical and ultimate demise of second wave feminism; yet, while she was a female historian, she recognized issues second wave feminism created for future research. At its apex, the women’s rights movement stood only for a loose definition of feminism. Lerner needed to separate these constraints in order to continue to strive in research for women’s history. Thus what Lerner is concerned with is women’s emancipation, which is the “freedom from oppressive restrictions imposed by sex; self-determination; autonomy,” that long “predates the women’s rights movement.” Lerner found that through history, her works could help drive this emancipation. Her serious effort to define and explain the constructs that have done a disservice to the
Dicker describes the revolutionary movements that brought about the changes in the society in terms of gender equality and women's rights. Although Dicker reveals significant similarities between the types of struggles in the first and second waves of feminism in the United States, ultimately she demonstrates that the differences outweigh the similarities. In the first wave of feminism, Dicker depicts the struggle that the women are going through to attain women’s right to vote and equality. In the nineteenth century, women were prohibited from voting and feminist such as Susan Anthony got in trouble when then went to vote and were faced with charges. As evidenced in the quote from the book, ‘... women deserved to make their voices heard and, in so doing, create laws that would benefit and protect them,’ the right to vote not only women gave them a chance to make socio-political changes in the country that would empower them, but also gender equality (Dicker 54).
Although both western and third world feminist theory focus on women’s issues, I would argue that third world feminist theory use an intersectional approach taking into account colonization, race, ethnicity, and class by localizing and contextualizing concepts like reproduction, marriage, family, patriarchy and the division of labor. Intersectionality is important in analyzing women’s issues within third world feminist theory in that it reveals the interlocking hierarchies of identity, which classify the experiences of individual women. For example by saying women are oppressed because of their gender then we are not considering intersectionality to analyze the oppression of women. If we say that women’s oppression not only depends on their gender, but also depends on their race, class, and historical contexts, then we are applying the theory of intersectionality to analyze the issue of women’s oppression. Western feminist discourses on third world women categorize third world women as a homogenous group regardless of the diversity in their struggles against racism, sexism and colonialism.... ... middle of paper ... ... Western counterparts.
Multicultural and global feminism bases itself, even in the United States, on the fact that women are not created equally. The two challenge the racial, cultural, and ethnic issues for women in society that keep them oppressed rather than just sexual oppression. “Depending on her race and class but also on her sexual preference, age, religion, education attainment, occupation, marital status, health condition, and so on, each and every women in the United States will experience her oppression as an American women differently,” (Tong 212). Multicultural feminism in America towards race and class has had a long lasting reputation in the United States. Although there are other factors in culture that society uses to target certain groups of women, many multicultural feminists focus mainly on the issue of race and class being that it has had a major effect towards the feminist movement.
Women are oppressed because they are women. Radical feminism aims to defeat and/or contradict patriarchy and start promoting a radical or a reform of the society. This theory is basically about women trying to recreate a new form of society where dominance is not for men alone. The socialist feminism is just like a combination of the Marxist and radical feminism. This theory focuses on the importance of the difference among people namely sex, class, age, race, ethnicity, nationality, and sexual orientation.
This was an ongoing struggle of post-1990s feminism – how to reclaim different aspects of “traditional” female sexuality and femininity in which their culture dehumanizes them for expressing. But to these women, their expression of dress was another form of empowerment. Just as the third wave attempts to change connotations of words, they also attempt to change the views of truly feminine women based on their
“Feminism is both an intellectual commitment and a political movement that seeks justice for women and the end of sexism in all forms” (Baptiste). Just as in the past, feminism continues to act as a controversial issue among men and women. In the 1960’s, women finally addressed workplace inequity and created woman organizations to achieve equality. In the early 1960’s, the Equal Pay Act and the Civil Rights Act set a milestone for women’s progression towards work equality. Though women have made great leaps towards true equality, women still face many challenges and continue to be categorized as the subservient gender.
Whereas the story criticizes the woman’s suppressed role in patriarchal society, later on it promotes the woman’s status by breaking the male hegemony at the end of the story. As feminist critics argues, the story tells a journey of a woman to break discriminations, and setting a social structure over the equal order. Works Cited Kennedy, X. J., and Dana Gioia. "The Yellow Wallpaper." Backpack Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and Writing.
The role and status of women in Kerala from the early twentieth century to the present is traced in order to identify the various factors which restricted and still restrict women from becoming empowered. The change from the joint family to the nuclear family and the greater subordination of women in the new arrangement are also discussed. Modern Malayalee women’s attempts to challenge and subvert patriarchal power structures and systems of oppression are discussed. The various changes that took place in the cultural domain of Kerala are also analysed in this chapter. Feminism as a philosophical, political, social, cultural and literary movement challenges the patriarchal power structures which
Pankhurst’s advocacy for women’s suffrage rights demonstrated a greater concern for human rights as she held that women voters would be able to help in resolving social injustices like poverty. In The Autobiography of a Sexually Emancipated Communist Woman, Alexandra Kollontai explores the gains made after the WW1 whereby women wielded more power in the socio-political scene. The accounts by Pankhurst and Kollontai bring out the differences that during the pre-war and post-war eras. In her speech, Pankhurst notes that “In this country, they tell us we have a representative government. So far as women are concerned…you have despotic government for women (p. 34).” In comparing the so-called representative government to a tyrannical one, Pankhurst depicted the picture of a government that was not concerned with the interests of the women, but one whose main concern was to further the issues that are pertinent to themselves.