The Ideas Of Ginnah Muhammad, And The Universal Declaration Of Human Rights
1987 Words8 Pages
On October 11, 2006, district Judge Paul Paruk dismissed a lawsuit case between plaintiff, Ginnah Muhammad, and defendant, Enterprise-Rent-A-Car, because of the plaintiff’s refusal to remove her veil in court (Murray,2010). The United States is viewed as a beacon of light for liberal democracies because of the widespread involvement of citizens in government, free elections, and emphasis on human rights. The US Department of State reports, “The protection of fundamental human rights was a foundation stone in the establishment of the U.S. over 200 years ago.” The US still holds the objectives behind its foundation in high regard and has gotten involved in spreading the ideas of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights across the globe. Article 18 in the Declaration of Human Rights and Article One in the United States Constitution issue freedom of religion for all individuals. Judge Paruk’s demand for Muhammad to remove her veil was viewed as a violation of civil rights and infringement of the free exercise clause in Article One by some, but other citizens saw this demand as just and necessary in order to uphold the Sixth Amendment which calls for fair trials (Paruk and Walid, 2006). The government’s main aim is to uphold constitutional rights, and there is debate about which rights hold precedent and are most valuable (Murray, 2010).
The First Amendment’s Free Exercise and Establishment clauses guarantee the freedom of religion. Allowance of this fundamental human right creates a clear barrier between life in America and life in illiberal nations like Iran and France. After the revolution in 1979, Iran turned into an Islamic state (“The Veil of Oppression”). Religion police adopted radical dress codes for the public and there wer...
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...idence and therefor should not be considered unnecessary. Others believe it would be unfair to create policies that would apply to some citizens and not others based on religion or tradition because this in itself is a form of inequality and can be considered unconstitutional.
Although the United States is labeled as a liberal democracy, civil liberties are not always guaranteed and in some instances can and have been compromised. Because there is no legislation that differentiates which natural and civil rights take precedent, there will constantly be conflict with cases like Muhammad v. Enterprise in which certain rights are sacrificed to uphold other rights. Despite the United State’s pledge to enforce equal rights for all citizens, Muhammad v. Enterprise is a clear example of the inequality that is present in America and the flaws in the system of government.