Development of Police Agencies:
Policing in the United States has mainly been based and expanded on the ideas of English way of policing. The English way of policing has not only been used as the basis for American policing but it has also been used to commence an era of evolving police agencies. In its early years, policing in the United States was largely regarded as a civic duty or responsibility of community members. The appointed officers were neither trained nor paid for their services to community members. Consequently, the chosen Sheriffs were usually motivated by financial incentives and lost their focus on enforcement of the law, which contributed to the perception that policing was primarily reactive in nature. However, the nature and structure of policing changed significantly following the emergence of urbanization, industrialism, and the society, which resulted in increase in crime. This forced the police or law enforcement officers to adopt a more proactive approach rather than the reactive approach that was traditionally associated with law enforcement. Notably, the history of policing has been characterized by considerable changes from time to time due to several factors like technological advancements and increase in threats to security.
History of Police Agencies:
The modern police agencies have grown and developed since the early 1600s to become an increasingly organized group that endeavors to prevent crime while preserving the rights and professionalism of citizens. Generally, modern policing in the United has been shaped by the early English police styles (“The History of the Police”, n.d.). This is primarily because the first organized policing agencies were witnessed in the early 1800s but exper...
... middle of paper ...
...artments provide specialized uniformed services for a particular location while investigative branches have an allocated section of United States Code that they enforce. Specialized police agencies are departments of special jurisdiction that do not necessarily operate on the state level such as airport and campus police departments. County police agencies are the second most prevalent law enforcement departments while tribal agencies are basically a combination of local and federal uniformed police.
In conclusion, police agencies in the United States have mainly developed based on policing in England with regards to nature and structure. Notably, this development has also been fueled by changes that have taken place in the society from time to time. Currently, there are more than 15,000 police agencies in America in different jurisdictions and different roles.
...nt to work together has increased. It has become more common place for federal law enforcement to work with local law enforcement. The monetary influence from programs administered by the Executive Branch with such programs as COPS, helps bring new technologies to local police agencies, thus impacting policing. Moreover, the federal law enforcement’s creation of new crime fighting technologies, eventually make their way into the state and local police departments. This supports the idea that both the Legislative and Executive Branches influence law enforcement; however, the Executive Branch provides a more direct and active influence.
This is very true in today's police work. A police department has to be able to stand the test of time. By this I mean must be capable of enduring changes in government, and be able to react to any situation they may encounter. The department must also be efficient when handling a case or investigation, any wrong step and everything goes the wrong way. Also must be like in the military, follow chains of command and promote in rank
A critical examination of police departments across the United States would show that while law enforcement agencies do common work, few agencies utilize the identical same strategy to tackle crime and disorder problems within their communities. Many agencies still deploy a traditional response model to address routine and emergency calls for service. The response model places a high emphasis on fast response times to calls for service and effective investigations which result in arrest and prosecution. However, more and more agencies are implementing variations of new strategies to deal with crime and disorder issues within their jurisdictions. Some of these newer strategies include community-policing, hot-spot policing and
Walker, S, and C Katz. The Police in America. 7th. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2011. 28-54. Print.
By the turn of the twentieth century, criticism was developing over the ineffective and illegitimate character of local police departments. During this time period, the Progressive Era, many changes were taking place in America. Urbanization was bringing many people to large, increasingly industrial cities of the day. City officials were required to redesign many facets of urban life as cities continued to grow. This atmosphere of reform was also carried over into policing. Roberg et al. argues that the 1920s to 1960s were “probably the most significant period in the development of policing in the United States” (2012). During this time period, the foundations of professionalization were laid down. The reform model of policing dominated police work during this time period (Roberg et al. 2012). This model was characterized by a commitment to base the police-community relationship on law and police policy. It was now understood that police action should not be influenced by politics or personal opinions. To avoid this, police departments were now efficiently and centrally m...
...t is extremely extensive and elaborate, far different from its humble beginnings (Schmalleger 145). American government has expanded much over the decades to include 14 departments and 28 non-departmental conglomerates, each with its own direction and purpose concerning a specific area needing law enforcement; in addition to new entities, there also are at least 137,929 officers employed by the government (Schmalleger 145). All officers and departments work continuously and uniformly in order to administer justice as properly and swiftly as possible.
American policing originated from early English law and is profoundly influenced by its history. Early law enforcement in England took on two forms of policing, one of which heavily influenced modern policing and it is known as the watch (Potter, 2013). The watch consisted, at first, of volunteers which had to patrol the streets for any kind of disorder including crime and fire. After men attempted to get out of volunteering by paying others, it became a paid professional position (Walker & Katz, 2012). The three eras of policing in America are shaped by these early ideas and practices of law enforcement. Throughout time, sufficient improvements and advancements have been made from the political era to the professional era and finally the community era which attempts to eliminate corruption, hire qualified officers and create an overall effective law enforcement system.
I have learned that there are more than 18, 000 law enforcement agencies in the United States, most have less than 10 full time sworn police officer. The public are basically only familiar with the more visible roles in the law enforcement such as, Patrol Officer, Detectives, Investigations, Forensics, and Community Relations. In particularly, I have also learned that law enforcement agencies are paramilitary in nature, meaning they are very similar in structure to a military unit. Their jobs titles and ranks are also similar in nature to the military.
Policing was created during the time urbanization and industrialization in the Western world came about. What once started with a couple of watchmen guarding their town at night, has transformed into 17,000 public law enforcement agencies and supplying over a million people with jobs.(AmericanCJSystem) Police agencies consist of local police departments, sheriff’s departments, and state police, as well as 50 federal law enforcement agencies. The United States has one of the most diverse law enforcement agencies in the world. The most common law enforcement agency is the local police departments, such as the Greenberg Police Department, that enforce state laws.(AmericanCJSystem) The Sheriff department is apart of the local police department that operates on a country level: maintain jails and courtroom. Although there are many different departments they all share the same three approaches to protect the people. The three styles of policing are the watchman, legalistic and service. the watchman style is used to maintain order and prevent situations from escalating. The legalistic style deals with making arrests and handling violations of the law.(AmericanCJSystem) The service style address neighborhood concerns and help solve minor problems. Ultimately, police are suppose to prevent and control terrible things from happening, yet in the U.S. we have noticed
Reformers wanted to stray away from political influences and believed that policing should be in the control of police executives (Peak, 2015). While the Political era’s goal was social services, the Reform Era began to shift policing to controlling crime. In addition, the police organizations were reorganized through the study of scientific theory of administration advocated by Fredrick Taylor, which led to the development of maximizing police efficiency (Peak, 2015). To improve professionalism within police departments, O.W. Wilson began emulating what J. Edgar Hoover did with the FBI. In 1924, the FBI director began to raise eligibility standards to develop an incorruptible force. As a result, it had a direct influence on local police agencies by placing emphasis on education, training, honesty and professionalism. Professionalism in police departments came about in the form of new Technological advances and a focus on crime fighting. During this period there were three major advances in technology: two-way radio, police cars and the telephone. Unlike the problems faced during the political era, the advent of these technologies changed everything. With two-way radios, supervisors now had the capability to notify patrol officers of calls and maintain accountability. Patrol cars allowed for greater mobility, which led to officers responding to calls more efficiently. Then telephones allowed for citizens to have a direct line to the police and were encouraged to call for any problem. However, while the advances in technology greatly increased police efficiency, it had unexpected consequences. In contrast, during the political era, officers patrolled on foot, which allowed them to engage citizens and develop a relationship within the community. With the use of police cars, officers no
Across America, police have been involved in scandals and drugs. They are abusing the power that they have been given. The communities have begun not to trust the police because of their conduct toward the citizens. People have been beaten and harassed by the guys in blue. People in the communities have seen the police push individuals around and take things from individuals for no reason. People receive the wrong message. The public no longer can see a difference between the police and criminals.
Most people confuse police authority with police power. What are police authority and or police power? Souryal, (2007), stated, “That Authority is the right to control the behavior of others within legally determined parameter. These include constitutional and professional limitations, which are designed to resolve conflicts in an orderly fashion. Authority stems from the practitioner’s official position and applies only to the territory or jurisdiction to which he or she is assigned. The limits of authority are usually stated in penal codes, the codes of criminal procedures, agency rules and regulations, training manuals, and often in codes of ethics. Authority applies to the handing of standard cases because, contrary to popular belief, criminal practitioners encounter more similar situations than dissimilar situations”.