PREDICTION OF ASAPHALT PAVEMENT RUTTING USING FINITE ELEMENT THEORY Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi Selangor, Malaysia. ABSTRACT The finite element method is capable of simulating the observed rutting of pavements subjected to axle load. Finite element modeling of pavements can be used directly to estimate primary response parameters without resorting to potentially costly field experiments. The
boundary layer. Vortex shedding appear as oscillating flow from opposite sides of a structure and engender fluctuating load perpendicular to the wind direction. Structural vibrations may occur due to resonance effect when the frequency of vortex shedding matches the natural frequency of the structure. Therefore, the Eurocode 1991-1-4 should not be used for buildings taller than 200m and very slender or unusual structures because it does not provide regulation on the following aspects: wind actions
CHAPTER I 1.1 Introduction Formwork is defined as temporary structure whose purpose is to provide support and containment for fresh concrete until it can support itself. It moulds the concrete to the desired shape and size and controls its position and alignment. The development of formworks is parallel with the growth of concrete construction throughout the 20th century. The advancement of technology, increase of population and the space limitation lead the way to construct high-rise buildings.
collapse of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge, all the static and dynamic strains should have been taken into account which would have involved proper consideration of effects of environmental conditions, building materials and design. I. Environmental conditions A. Effects and behavior of winds 1. Moderate winds, large oscillations 2. Wind effects on bridges 3. Transfer of wind 4. Vortices 5. Vortex streets 6. Vortex shredding 7. Frequency II. Building materials A. Properties of materials